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      英國課程作業:Discussing The Knife Crime In Britain 論英國的持刀犯罪

      時間:2021-07-27 09:47來源:www.nguoikontum.com 作者:cinq 點擊:
      英國課程作業-論英國的持刀犯罪。通過四個部分來分析英國的持刀犯罪,包括犯罪范圍,原因,以及如何減少持刀犯罪。本文是一篇典型的英國留學生課程作業格式范文,作為Criminology Essay,通過案例分析研究問題,并且通過文獻閱讀找出問題的原因,最終得出解決問題的方法和建議。對于廣大英國留學生們而言是一篇值得參考的英國論文格式范例。
      英國課程作業
      英國課程作業
      第一節:英國刀具犯罪問題。2006年6月,15歲的亞歷克斯·穆倫布(Alex Mulumbu)在慶祝普通中等教育證書考試結束后,又成為英國刀子文化的犧牲品。受害人在倫敦南部的蘭貝斯與朋友下車后,與一大群青少年發生了爭執。在爭執期間,該團伙成員失蹤,并帶著刀、棒球棍和曲棍球棍返回。亞歷克斯的心臟被刺傷,躺在人行道上的血泊中。他的父親參觀了兒子被殺的現場,他對媒體說亞歷克斯是個好孩子,與刀子和幫派無關。
      Section 1: The Problem of Knife Crime in Britain. In June 2006, 15 years old Alex Mulumbu after celebrating the end of his GCSEs exams became one more victim of Britain’s knife culture. The victim after he got off a bus with friends in Lambeth, south London had an argument with a larger group of teenagers (Woolcock, 2006). During the dispute members of the gang disappeared and returned armed with knives, baseball bats and hockey sticks. Alex was stabbed in the heart and was left lying in a pool of blood on the pavement (Verkaik, 2006). His father visited the scene of his son’s killing where he stated to the media that Alex was a good boy and had nothing to do with knives and gangs (Sturcke, 2006).

      上面的案件小插曲清楚地說明了媒體是如何描述持刀犯罪的。一個正在下公共汽車的少年碰巧被肇事者刺傷了。然而,持刀犯罪的現實并不是簡單的好與壞的黑白問題。這樣一個問題的性質是復雜的,因此對它的反應必須是多方面的(下議院)。畢竟,如果刀的問題是那么容易,它已經解決了。
      The case vignette above is a clear example of how knife crime is portrayed by the media. A teenager who is getting off a bus and it happens to get stabbed by the perpetrator. However, the reality of knife crime is not simply a black-white issue of good versus bad. The nature of such a problem is complicated and the responses towards it must therefore be multi-faceted (House of Commons). After all, if knife problem was that easy, it would have been solved already.
      One complexity is that the victims are not always good honest citizens who were in the wrong place at the wrong time. The victims are often victimized before and are also those who are carrying knives in the first place (and actually their own knife is used against them). 
      Furthermore, the offender’s and victim’s status in not always differentiated, since the victims carry knives because they are often linked to gangs or have some kind of affiliation with street culture. This, in turn, could mean that a significant proportion of stabbings relate to street violence , and as Professor Brohi claims “a very small proportion of knife crime victims are innocent people walking down the street who are stabbed” (House of Commons).
      The media make knife crime even more complex as they often cloud people’s perception by generating moral panic and by giving the impression that knife crime is out of control (Albertazzi, 2010:473). This moral panic, in turn, leads to fear of crime and social disorganization.
      Knife crime is also complex in itself as it is a symbolic of lack of social control within societies. Knife crime looks unsolvable and as there is no connection between adults-teenagers (Hume, 2008), although it involves young people and shatters lives. In particular, knife crime in itself gives the impression that somehow it is a matter of young people’s world since teenagers are on their own, surviving on the streets (Asthana, 2008). Thus, those who do not live in that kind of environments (outsiders) can never understand.
      Finally, knife crime is complex because there is no answer to the question why teenagers carry knives. We do not know whether teenagers carry knives for self protection and because of the growing lack of trust in the ability of adults to protect them (Kelbie, 2003), or whether carry knives for things like respect “knife carrying is thought to be largely driven by a concern for self protection or to enhance status” (Muncie, 2009:36).
      Continuing the study I am going to produce a report divided into three key sections. The first will be the extent of knife crime in Britain. The second will look at the causes of knife crime and finally the third will produce some initiatives dealing with knife crime.
      Section 2: The Extent of Knife Crime in Britain 英國持刀犯罪的范圍             
      此外,在界定持刀犯罪是否是一個以黑人為主的問題方面,持刀犯罪非常復雜。媒體經常給人的印象是,所有的犯罪都是由黑人犯下的,因此,使人們產生誤解。
      Furthermore, knife crime is very complicated in terms of defining whether it is a predominantly black problem. The media often give the impression that all crimes are committed by black people and therefore, make people adopt misconceptions (Wright, 2008).
      因此,值得注意的是,盡管這個問題在倫敦和東南部看起來像是黑人(www.London.gov.uk),但同時也有證據表明,在東北部(即格拉斯哥、蘇格蘭、曼徹斯特),問題是白人(下議院)。因此,這在倫敦可能主要是一個黑人問題,但在其他地方肯定不是。有鑒于此,我得出的結論是,攜帶刀具的問題與黑人或白人關系不大,相反,它與年輕和男性有關(Muncie,2009年)。             
      Hence, it is important to note that even though the issue looks like it is black in London and the South-East , at the same time there are evidence that suggesting that in the North-East (i.e. Glasgow, Scotland, Manchester) the problem is white (House of Commons). As a result, it might be predominantly a black issue in London but certainly not in other places. Given that, I have concluded that the issue of carrying knives has little to do with being black or white, but on the contrary, it has to do with being young and male (Muncie, 2009).
      此外,持刀犯罪的定義也很復雜,因為內政部對“持刀犯罪”沒有明確的定義。據此,“持刀犯罪”一詞被媒體采用,現在被普遍用來主要指刺殺,但也指年輕人非法攜帶刀具(下議院)。因此,由于沒有明確的定義,許多人可能會使用不同的定義來創建統計數據,從而產生更大的復雜性。
      Also, knife crime is complicated in terms of definition, since there is no clear Home Office clear definition of ‘knife crime’. According to that, the phrase ‘knife crime’ was adopted by the media and is now popularly used to refer primarily to stabbings but also to the illegal carrying of knives by young people (House of Commons). Hence, since there is no clear definition, then, it is likely for the numerous to use different definitions in order to create statistics and therefore generate more complexity.
      Furthermore, knife crime is also complicated because there are too many different types of statistics (too much statistical data). In particular, there are statistics for knife crime from the hospital, the police, the British Crime Survey and finally the MORI (House of Commons, 2009). Each of these sources, measure different samples and different places (regions) in the country and therefore, it is too complicated to understand what is happening (Summers, 2008). For example, hospitals define knife crime when somebody has severe internal injuries as a result of knife penetration, whereas police define it when someone is carrying a knife (House of Commons)
      Furthermore, trying to measure knife crime is, again, difficult because there is also the dark figure of crime. Therefore, this hidden crime makes statistics themselves problematic (Messerschmidt, 1993).
      However, above all else, the complexity of knife crime is related to the media. The media manipulate the statistics and distort people’s perceptions about knife crime, since they are powerful and so pervasive in terms of their ability to create views (Jewkes, 2004).
      One distortion is that knife crime is predominantly a black issue. Given that, even though evidence suggest that knife crime is also a white problem (in other areas), yet, the media continue the misrepresentation constantly accusing blacks (scapegoats). According to that, I believe that this misrepresentation leads to moral panic which, in turn, somehow makes the statistics go up.
      In other words, since teenagers interfere with the media (moral panic), then, they may feel fear of the streets and therefore through self fulfilling prophecy, start carrying knives for self protection. Hence, there is an interaction-interrelationship between the statistics and knife crime (Newburn, 2007).
      Regarding to the problems associated with knife crime measurement, I believe that data should be collected through a regional setting and this is for two reasons. Firstly, because as indicated, knife crime is not a specific cultural issue of Blacks, and secondly, because the measurement of such a complex issue through national settings, inevitable will generate too many complicated statistical data.
      Furthermore, and as Young (1988) argues, national settings tend to miss some important elements in the distribution of victimization (Newburn, 2007). Hence, I suggest a regional setting both in areas with the highest knife-crime rates, but also to areas where crime rate is low. This, in turn, we will help us understand why it is black issue in some places whereas white in other.
      Equally important is to collect data using qualitative approaches, since it would be more beneficial to understand the lived experiences of those who carry knives (rationale behind knife crime) instead of how many carry a knife (What would be the point of knowing that 4000 are carrying knives after all?). For example, it would be very interesting to understand how knife crime is perceived and interpreted by the juvenile delinquents (ethnography research) and thus, find out why they carry knives. This way, more evidence will come up such as whether knife crime relates to London’s (for example) rates of poverty, neglect, unemployment and deprivation (House of Commons).
       
      英國課程作業
      英國課程作業
      Section 3: The Causes of Knife Crime in Britain 英國持刀犯罪的原因
      社會學習理論是犯罪學理論中最經久不衰的方法之一,它強調人們參與社會關系的本質。薩瑟蘭考慮了以前的犯罪學理論,認為社會上的任何人都可以接受訓練,以適應和遵循犯罪和偏差的模式(。
      The social learning theory is one of the most enduring approaches among the criminological theories that underscore the nature of people’s involvement in social relationships. Sutherland, considered previous criminological theories and argued that anyone in society can be trained to adopt and follow patterns of crime and deviation (Colombo, 2009).
      根據薩瑟蘭的“差異聯想”概念,罪犯的威望、罪犯與潛在罪犯之間的接觸時間以及與罪犯互動的頻率,都是個人從事犯罪活動的可能性的促成因素。薩瑟蘭還提出,社會群體中犯罪行為的發展,例如“粗暴和強硬”的態度,促進了個人對犯罪態度的內化傾向。
      In accordance to Sutherland’s ‘differential association’ conception, the prestige of criminals, the duration of contact between offenders-potential offenders and the frequency of interactions with criminal offenders, are all contributing factors in an individual’s likeliness to occupy criminal activities. Sutherland also suggested that attendance with the development of criminal behaviours in social groups, for instance ‘rough and tough’ attitudes, ‘boosts’ the individual’s propensity to interiorize criminal attitudes.
      因此,社會學界對持刀犯罪的成因聯系以及對陽剛之氣和理性選擇的觀點。根據差異聯想的概念,男孩正在成長為男人。這種肯定男子氣概的過程促使男孩形成一種強硬、有男子氣概和無所畏懼的公眾形象(外表)。
      Social learning therefore, links to the causes of knife crime as well as links to masculinity and rational choice perspectives. According to differential association concept, boys are growing up to be men. This process of affirming masculinity promotes boys to develop a public persona (an exterior) of being tough, macho and fearless.
      In the context of knife crime this means that men have to be risk takers, aggressive and support their competitive nature (i.e. territoriality). Boys, if lose their reputation in front of peers and someone undermines their masculinity, in turn, have to regain this reputation by carrying knives and using them in front of their mates.
      Thus, since they learn masculinity (via social learning), they learn to behave accordingly to this social role (masculinity) and therefore, act out like men (tough, aggressive). Finally, in terms of applying that to a knife crime, they make the ultimate decision (rational choice) on whether to carry knives by weighing the benefits (status, respect) against the risks (get stabbed, get caught). To conclude, I believe that there is a link between masculinities and social learning as what seems to be happening today, is that street culture (knife crime) is becoming masculine culture (i.e. through rap music) (Newburn, 2007).
      However, even though differential association theory is one of the most enduring theories about crime, yet, there are some difficulties in explaining knife crime.
      First of all, according to the first principle of differential association theory, criminal behaviour is learnt (Colombo, 2009). If that is the case, I believe that we have to critically question, how did the first “teacher” learnt the knife techniques (i.e. hide a knife, disposal once used), so that to pass this ‘knowledge’ to others? Hence, differential association theory fails to explain the origins of knife crime, since there are no origins.
      Furthermore, there are no real empirical evidence of links between learning and knife crime. For example, differential association theory does not explain why in similar circumstances, (balance of favorable-unfavourable definitions) some individuals choose to carry a knife whereas others do not.
      Moreover, social learning theory fails to explain why teenagers develop to associate with those who carry knives. Instead, it focuses more on the peer influence and not on peer selection.
      Additionally, differential association, supports that all criminal acts are rational (maximase profit-minimise loss) and systematic. However, it fails to explain the spontaneous, wanton acts of violence, which have little purpose or utility (Siegel, 2004).
      Finally, it is very difficult for social scientists to measure such vague variables like “excess of definitions favourable to law violation” (Colombo, 2009).
      Section 4: Towards the Reduction of Knife Crime in Britain 英國減少持刀犯罪  
      對付刀具行動計劃(TKAP)是一個數百萬英鎊的風險投資,打擊刀具犯罪。其主要目的是限制13-19歲青少年攜帶刀具和嚴重刺傷,涉及5個政府部門和16支警察部隊。
      The Tackling Knives Action Programme (TKAP) is a multi-million-pound venture, against knife crime. Its main purpose is to limit the carrying of knives and serious stabbings among teenagers aged between13-19. It involves five government departments and 16 police forces .
      然而,行動計劃(TKAP)在數據方面有一些重要的局限性,因為記錄在案的犯罪,特別是暴力程度較低的犯罪,可能會受到警察活動變化和公眾對數據報告的影響。此外,許多領域缺乏比較統計數字。最后,TKAP面臨著力量的異質性。             
      另一項反持刀政策是通過立法禁止向18歲以下的任何人出售刀具。此外,警察行動,如鈍器和盾牌,涉及在車站、學校等公共場所快速和隨機部署金屬探測器。這項政策的目的是指認和逮捕任何持刀者。
      However, Tackling Knives Action Programme (TKAP) has some important limitations in relation to the data, since the recorded crime, especially the less violent, can be affected by changes in police activity and public rep
      然而,無論是限制18歲以下刀具的銷售,還是部署金屬探測器,都未能解決這一問題,因為以菜刀為例,仍將廣泛使用。因此,這更多的是教育問題,而不是獲得刀具的問題。此外,金屬探測器可能檢測不到所有刀具,因為刀具一旦使用就很容易隱藏和處理。orting to the data. Furthermore, there is a lack of comparison statistics in many areas. Finally, TKAP faced the heterogeneity of the forces.
      Another anti-knife policy that has been introduced is via legislation to forbid the sale of knives to anyone under the age of 18. Additionally, Police Operations like Blunt and Shield involve the rapid and random deployment of metal detectors in public places such as stations, schools and so forth. The aim of the policy is to identify and arrest anyone carrying a knife .
      However, both the restriction of knives sales under- 18s, as well as the deployment of metal detectors fails to tackle the problem, since kitchen knives for instance, would still be widely available. Hence, it is more a problem of education, rather than access to knives. Furthermore, metal detectors may be not detecting all knives, as knives can be easily hidden and disposed once used.
      My opinion about tackling of knife crime is that one organization alone cannot end this issue. Given that, I suggest that the main aim of all anti-knife crime initiatives should be to increase the definitions against knife-crime (rational choice theory) so that young people understand that carrying knives is immoral but most of all, it is risky (maximize cost, minimize benefit).
      Furthermore, I support that the best anti knife-crime policy would be to educate the teenagers about this problem (social learning theory). Hence, young people could learn about the consequences of carrying knives at an early age through a mandatory module (i.e. weapon awareness) at schools. Furthermore, I believe that the best initiative to stop knife culture would be if parents (especially the fathers) could show their boys that carrying knives has nothing to do with being a man (masculinity theory).
      As a conclusion, I argue that Alex’s case highlights the need for the authorities to recognize that educating both teenagers and families from an early age is crucial in order to tackle knife crime. Concisely, I have concluded that knife crime is very complex issue because of many reasons. The main one surely is because there are lots of statistical data. Additionally knife crime is complex because the media create moral panic and thus does not help. Moreover I have concluded that knife crime is not a black issue but a knife issue and thus, anti knife policies should redirect their focus on the rationale behind knife crime.
      Ultimately, I would like to try to give an explanation of what could have might happen in the case vignette. Alex could have been probably to the enemy’s territory and showed disrespect on the other boys. He threatened the teenagers with his knife and made them run away. Then, the other boys went to another estate, took knives and returned back in order to regain their reputation and status. They have learnt (social learning) that men never back out (masculinity) and finally, they have made the ultimate decision to take the risk and stab Alex (rational choice).
      最后,我想試著解釋一下在這個案例中可能會發生什么。亞歷克斯可能到過敵人的地盤,對其他男孩不敬。他用刀子威脅青少年,讓他們逃跑。然后,其他男孩去了另一個莊園,拿著刀回來,以恢復他們的名譽和地位。他們學會了(社會學習)男人永遠不會退縮(陽剛之氣),最后,他們做出了最終的決定,冒險刺傷亞歷克斯(理性選擇)。
       
      英國課程作業往往會像上述內容這樣,提出作者自己的看法,針對案例內容,通過分析原因,并找出解決問題的方法。這是符合英國作業的邏輯安排和格式要求,本站提供多國課程作業寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。


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