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      Assignment怎么寫——CRM assignment參考范文

      時間:2021-09-06 10:21來源:www.nguoikontum.com 作者:cinq 點擊:
      Assignment怎么寫?小編這次為各位留學生朋友推薦一篇CRM assignment參考范文,主要內容是討論所選組織的客戶感知到的體驗在多大程度上可能受到文化背景的影響。提出公司可以用來適應這種多樣性的方法。是一篇格式完整,邏輯清晰的Assignment范文,對于要解決怎么寫Assignment這一問題的學生來說,是一篇值得參考的Assignment范文。
       
      Assignment怎么寫
      Assignment怎么寫
      Introduction 簡介
      客戶關系管理(CRM)是一種專門為特定客戶設計的軟件系統,用于留住老客戶和吸引新的潛在客戶??蛻絷P系管理是在關系營銷的基本原則下工作的,與客戶建立高質量的關系是任何企業能夠實現的最有價值的資產。隨著客戶關系管理的出現,它使企業能夠了解客戶的購買行為并系統地建立信任。英國航空公司董事長柯林·馬歇爾爵士表示,“關鍵是首先確定并吸引那些重視您服務的客戶,然后留住他們,使他們成為客戶,并贏得盡可能多的終身業務份額。”
      CRM is a specially designed software system for a particular client, to retain old customers and attract new potential customers. CRM works under the basic principle of relationship marketing, building a high-quality relationship with customers is the most valuable assets any business can achieve. With the advent of CRM, it enables the business to understand its customer’s buying behavior and build trust systematically. Sir Collin Marshall Chairman of British Airways said “The key is to first identify and attract those customers who will value your service and then retain them as customers and win the largest possible share of their life time business. ” (The IDM Guide to Mastery, session 5, p-6)
      安東尼卡倫說“文化可以定義為我們與他人分享的價值觀和實踐,這些價值觀和實踐有助于將我們定義為一個群體,尤其是與其他群體的關系??梢杂新殬I文化、組織文化和民族文化。”。
      Anthony T Karen states “Culture can be defined as the values and practices that we share with others that help define us as a group, especially in relation to others groups. There can be occupational cultures, organizational cultures and national cultures.” (2001, p-185).
      根據上述定義,文化是一種環境,在這種環境中,人們將按照核心價值體系以某種方式行事。此外,更多的文化可以歸為組織文化,其中標準模式或規則成為集團的價值觀)。最后,Dorfman和Howell認為人格是研究民族文化對個體行為影響的一個獨特的文化梯隊。一個人可能不是這個文化群體的一部分,但這種欲望實際上會觸發購買以獲得歸屬感。
      According to the above definition culture is an environment where people belonging to this environment will act in a certain way, in accordance with the core values system. Further more cultures can be classified in to organizational culture where standard model or rules becomes the values of the group (Adler 1997; Bagchi and Cerveny 2003). Lastly Dorfman and Howell (1988) suggest personality is a unique echelon of culture in the investigation into the effects of national culture on individual behavior. An individual may not be a part of this culture group, but this desire that actually pulls the trigger of buying to get sense of belonging.
      CRM in different cultures 不同文化中的客戶關系管理
      CRM是一個旨在了解這些影響的系統,作為一個研究小組,我們選擇了一個植入眼鏡商/眼科醫生的CRM系統。假設CRM系統是成功的,并且幫助客戶與客戶建立更好的關系,那么在一個不同的文化社會中,它會是成功的嗎。我將進一步討論這個問題的背景,這可能是成功的障礙。
      CRM is a system designed to understand these influences, as a group we chose to study a CRM system implanted on a Optician/ Ophthalmologist. Assuming if the CRM system is successful and helps the client build up better relationship with customers, would it be a success in a different cultural society. I will further discuss this subject in with respect to context which could be the barriers in success.
      Understanding Consumer 了解消費者
      在國外市場引入客戶關系管理文化可能非常棘手,尤其是在市場飽和的情況下,但有時如果當地市場將產品或服務視為身份象征,這種策略可能非常有益。例如,在某些文化中使用黑莓手機被認為是地位的象征,因為它釋放了一種屬于精英商務階層群體的感覺,盡管市場上還有其他手機會執行完全相同的任務,如果不是更好的話,至少會有類似的效率。
      Introducing a CRM culture in a foreign market, can be very tricky, especially if the market is saturated but some times this strategy can be very beneficial if the local market presumes the product or service as a status symbol. For instance use of the Black Berry phone in some culture is perceived as status symbol because it releases a sense of belonging to elite business class group, although there are other phones in the market which would perform exactly the same task, if not better then at least with similar efficiency.
      其他文化中的客戶可以根據類別劃分為子類別??刂瀑徺I決策的因素可以是內部的,也可以是外部的;在這兩種情況下,消費者幾乎無法控制它。這些因素可能是你希望在一群朋友或商業客戶中被認知的方式,如果你想炫耀自己的購買力并將其用于身份象征,那么你會選擇頂級品牌。內部因素也可能是你的榜樣,一些你真正受到啟發的榜樣,或者一些來自媒體的榜樣。
      Customers in other cultures can be divided into sub-categories according to classes. Factors that control buying decision can be internal or external; in both the cases consumers have little control over it. These factors could be how you want to be perceived among group of friends or business clients, if you’re looking to show off and use your buying power for status symbol then you would choose top of the line brand. Internal factors could also be your role model, some one you really inspired by or could be some one from the media.
      生理學家亞伯拉罕·馬斯洛提出的需要層次理論中最具啟發性的動機理論。他提出了每個人一生中實現目標的動力過程。他把它分為五個階段;第一階段是生存的基本需要,例如食物、住所、衣物。一旦這個人在那個階段得到保護,他就進入了一個階段,在這個階段他需要免受失業、舞臺或庇護所之類的威脅。下一步,他們需要接受的文化,社會或任何其他群體的影響。后來,當他們被接受時,他們需要在這個群體中保持較高的自我地位,并被他人以尊重、地位、權力和威望來看待。最后但并非最不重要的一點是,當個人不斷追求一系列目標或抱負時
      The above diagram is the most inspired theory of motivation in hierarchy of needs theory developed by physiologist Abraham Maslow. He suggests the motivation process of any individual’s life to achieve. He divides it’s into five stages; stage one is the basic needs to survive for example food, shelter, cloths. Once the individual is secured in that stage he moves up to the stage where he needs to be safe from threats like loosing jobs, stage or shelter. Next they need to be accepted in the cultural, social or any other group they are influenced by. Later when they are accepted they need to hold them self up high in that group and perceived with respect, status, power and prestige by others. Last but not the least is when that individual is in constant pursuit for a set of objectives or ambitions. (Essentials Of Management, H. Koontz, H. Weihrich, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Figure 14.1, pg 290-291, 7th edition, 2007 )
      文化和亞文化對人們的生活方式、情感、原則、信仰和購買行為具有強大的控制力。例如,在西方社會,在麥當勞吃飯對社會地位沒有這樣的價值,但在一些東方國家,在麥當勞吃飯被認為是一種有聲望的行為。
      Culture and subcultures has a powerful control over people style of living, feelings, principles, faith and buying behavior. For instance in a western society eating at Mc Donald’s would have no such value towards social status but in some eastern countries eating out at Mc Donald’s is considered a prestigious.
      Psychological Factors 心理因素
      Consumer buying behavior can also be influenced by a multipart network of inner emotional variable; these consist of attitude, awareness, inspiration, learning, recollection. Every day customers are bombarded with different advertisement and messages, some of these are taken in to consideration or memorized. The subconscious screening process is on the basis of motivation or personal desire, hence this dilemma is worth looking into. Understanding these triggers and how customer associated their self-image with these products and services can give a marketing edge.
      In 2000 Terpstra and Sarathy developed a model that explains the factors which influence culture.
      The above factors are the key points they all very in different cultures. For instance in some culture English speaking can be witnessed as status symbol but in Arab countries local language is preferred hence if a company is implementing a offshore customer support call center then language with accent is vital.
      Values and attitude also change between nations and cultures, meaning in some cultures some symbols or objects can hold great importance like in India cows are considered as religious symbol where as in Pakistan they are sacrificed in a holy month of Ramzan.. “In 2004, China banned a Nike television commercial showing U.S. basketball star LeBron James in a battle with animated cartoon kung fu masters and two dragons, because it was argued that the ad insults Chinese national dignity.”
      Religious Views 宗教觀點
      “Care should be taken to make sure that religion beliefs are not contravened” R. Williams, Proceedings, pg-171, 2nd edition 2003. This could be one of the crucial factors which can not be ignored. For instance in Muslim cultures women can not interact with “Namahram” (Men who are not husband, brother, father or son). Which could be a big barrier in some operations of the firm, but by implementing this CRM system, customer can book appointment online without making any contact with a male. This could play be a big competitive advantage to start with. There is a huge importance given to privacy in Islam as well, Muslims being one of the largest religious group plays a great importance towards profitability.
      Technology  技術
      Technology plays an important role to support a CRM system to work. For instance optinet provides an facility to reach out customers by SMS service, their may be change that local network company do not provide such support, or even slow internet speed that may discourage customers to book an appointment online. “Trevor Baylis launched the clockwork radio upon the African market. Since batteries were expensive in Africa and power supplies in rural areas are non-existent. The clockwork radio innovation was a huge success”. ( International Marketing and Culture, Marketing Teacher Ltd 2000 – 2009, dc 23.12.2009, http://www.marketingteacher.com)
      Law and Politics  法律與政治
      Legal and political system in eastern countries are designed with accordance to the religion, for instance in Muslim countries the system is founded on the ideology of Islam and Sharia tradition. However if the government is corrupt and laws can be bended with bribery or having close ties with government officials, which could result in favor of the company.
      Privacy Issues 隱私問題
      In western culture as the CRM system has grown stronger and vast there are still privacy issues raised. Where in western culture customer some legislation like Gramm-Leach-Bliley act has be passed and many financial institutions have been forced to share customer details to third parties, eastern culture is quiet far behind in this scenario and some cultures do not prefer sharing there personal details with anyone. With the enough skepticism with internet technology threats like cookies, phising, spam, spyware, spoofing etc customers are worried about. For instance recently customer’s information was sold to marketing company to vitacost.com by bankrupt health information site Drkoop.com. (Matt Hines, Protect privacy or jeopardize CRM, 2002, www.searchcrm.techtarget.com). On the other hand there have been success stories as well like ebay. Ebay has developed a good reputation with keeping customer information private, it clearly states where it needs to share the information i.e. only to provide better service and secure transactions. Kevin Pursglove, spokesman for eBay privacy said “From the start it was apparent that privacy was a serious issue with our users,” (Matt Hines, Protect privacy or jeopardize CRM, 2002, www.searchcrm.techtarget.com).
      Cost effectiveness 成本效益
      In our case, the price of a basic Optinet Software was £ 99.00 per month, in most culture some private opticians wont be able to afford this price due to competitive environment that some of these opticians are competing a very low profit scale.
      CRM Core Value  客戶關系管理核心價值
      Keeping the customer satisfied is a hard job, especially when the expectations are high, customers do not appreciate being dodged and swindled. If a company promises cheaper price then it should deliver competitive prices, customer may buy once from the supplier but he will only return if he is satisfied. “The absolute fundamental aim is to make money out of satisfying customers.” Sir John Egan (Perfecting: Webster’s Quotations, Facts and Phrases, pg – 5, ICON Group International, Inc., 2008, )
      When dealing with troubled customers, expressing that the company is concerned about customer satisfaction makes the difference. This should demonstrate at all operational stages of the company from front desk to policy making. CRM is a fusion of knowledge and technology and personality, it will only be successful if the knowledge gained is used in the right way. The company should be able to offer right products, services and promotions at the right time to the right people and make the customer feel value of the company.
      Over spending or over reliance on a CRM software can be dangerous, CRM is only a tool and every tool requires skill full hands. Training and implementing right staff, understanding the key objectives of the system is vital. “‘If we build [CRM] right it will sell itself’ is not true,” Sauter said. An organization needs to be sure that its employees know what it means to that company to deliver customer value. Once that is understood, companies can begin to do the team building and put the tools and strategies in place to deliver that value and build loyalty,” said Mark Sauter president and CEO, GTP Associates Inc.
      Conclusion 結論
      If a CRM system works for IBM it does not mean it will work other companies. With every changing culture, it is absolutely necessary for the companies to understand the culture they intend to do business in. Without a doubt it is a very powerful and resourceful tool which will only work if all departments work together as a team supporting similar goals. Ellen Guevel, regional operations manager, Americas region, Nokia Mobile Phones, said that another important driver of CRM success is a culture that encourages the business and IT directors on a CRM project to work closely together. “The IT department is my partner. They don’t go around me; I don’t go around them,” Guevel said. “We say, ‘This is what we want to do. What are your reservations? What are your limitations?’ We start there.”
      Reference 參考文獻
      Anthony. T. Karen, Culture, Environment, and CRM , McGraw-Hill Professional, 2001, p-185)
      Adler, N. (1997). International dimensions of Organizational Behavior. ITP.
      Bagchi, K. and R. Cerveny (2003). The Influence of National Culture in Information Technology Product Adoption. Ninth Americas Conference on Information Systems, USA.
      CULTURAL DIMENSIONS AND CRM SYSTEMS: A STRUCTURATIONAL ANALYSIS, Maged Ali, Laurence Brooks, Sarmad Alshawi, European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (EMCIS) 2006
      Essentials Of Management, H. Koontz, H. Weihrich, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Figure 14.1, pg 290, McGraw-Hill; 7th edition, 2007
      Matt Hines, Protect privacy or jeopardize CRM, 2002, Dc, 22.12.09
      R. Williams, Proceedings of the 2nd European Conference on e-Learning, pg-170, Academic Conferences Limited, 2003
      G. Conlon, Creating a CRM Culture, March 2003 Issue, dc 22.12.2009
      International Marketing and Culture, Marketing Teacher Ltd 2000 – 2009, dc 23.12.2009,
      Perfecting: Webster’s Quotations, Facts and Phrases, pg – 5, ICON Group International, Inc., 2008
      The IDM Guide to Mastery, institute of direct marketing, 2002, session 5, p-6
       
      Assignment范文結論部分總結如果一個CRM系統為IBM工作,并不意味著它將為其他公司工作。隨著每一種文化的變化,公司都有必要了解他們打算在其中開展業務的文化。毫無疑問,這是一個非常強大和足智多謀的工具,只有當所有部門作為一個支持類似目標的團隊一起工作時,它才能發揮作用。諾基亞移動電話美洲區區域運營經理Ellen Guevel表示,CRM成功的另一個重要驅動因素是鼓勵企業和CRM項目IT主管密切合作的文化。本站提供各國Assignment寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。


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