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      美國essay范文:An Analysis Of Poverty In America 美國貧困現象分析

      時間:2021-08-23 09:37來源:www.nguoikontum.com 作者:cinq 點擊:
      美國essay范文-美國貧困現象分析。本文是一篇美國留學生Economics Essay范文,主要內容圍繞美國經濟發展、政治組織、社會穩定和家庭完整這四個要素展開,分析美國的貧困現象,因為這是制定社會福利政策和方案的核心部分。是一篇結構完整,邏輯清晰,并且符合美國大學essay格式要求的留學生課程作業范文。小編推薦美國留學生朋友們如果目前正在面臨essay寫作煩惱的話,可以參考本文,希望能對您有所幫助。
      美國essay范文
      美國essay范文
      美國的貧困問題是制定社會福利政策和方案的核心部分。美國歷史圍繞四個要素展開:經濟發展、政治組織、社會穩定和家庭完整。這些因素是美國成功的關鍵,但大多數美國人的挫折是貧窮。貧困是指沒有足夠的錢來滿足諸如食物、衣服和住房等基本需求的狀態。根據邁克爾·哈林頓的說法,被認為是不幸的美國人約占總人口的25%。在美國,貧窮始于16世紀新英格蘭殖民者來到新大陸的時候。這個時期被稱為殖民時期。
      Poverty in America is a central part in the creation of social welfare policies and programs. The history of America revolves around four elements: economic development, political organizations, social stability, and family integrity. These elements are key points to success in America but the setback for most Americans is poverty. Poverty is the state of not having enough money to take care of basic needs such as food, clothing, and housing. According to Michael Harrington (1962), the Americans that are considered to be unfortunate consist of about 25 percent of the total population (p.190). In America, poverty began in the 1600’s when the New England settlers arrived on the new land. This time of period is called the colonial period.
      在殖民地時期,人們來到這片新的土地上開始了一個新的開始,但他們意識到,由于環境的原因,很難適應這種文化。隨著時間的推移,殖民者不得不把他們從英國學到的一些東西帶到新大陸,比如他們的生活方式和英國糟糕的法律。伊麗莎白女王制定了英國窮人法,其中“最重要的是,強調了公共責任,為那些不能工作的窮人提供救濟,并為健全人工作”。盡管殖民者有著糟糕的法律,但許多人認為法律是不必要的,因為沒有持續的失業問題,也沒有工業給人們提供任何工作。受貧困影響的是殘疾人、老人和有小孩的寡婦。由于與美洲土著人的戰爭,寡婦和年幼的兒童占新大陸上窮人的很大比例。新大陸貧窮的其他原因是高生育死亡率、天花和其他導致經濟需求上升的疾病。
      During the colonial period people arrived on the new land for a new start but came to realize that it was difficult to adapt to the culture because of the environment. As time passed the colonist had to bring some of the things they learned from England such as the way they lived and the English poor laws to the new land. Queen Elizabeth established the English poor laws that “stressed, most importantly, public responsibility for relief for the poor who could not work, and work for the able-bodied” (Axinn & Stern, 2007, p. 14). Although the poor laws were in an existence to the colonist many felt that the laws were not needed because there was no constant unemployment problem and there was no industries to give people any work. The people that were affected by poverty were the disabled, elderly, and widows with young children. Due to war with Native Americans, widows and young children made up a large percentage of the poor on the new land. Other causes of poverty in the new land were high childbirth mortality, smallpox, and other diseases which caused a rise in economic needs.
       盡管經濟需求有所上升,但美國文化的發展仍在繼續形成并變得更加多樣化。美國從英國獲得獨立,并開始致力于發展民主。”《美國憲法》序言部分提到,促進普遍福利是組成新政府的原因之一,但沒有提到社會福利問題”。隨著時間的推移,美國進入了內戰前/后時期,進入了進步時代。
      Although there is a rise in economic needs the development of the American culture continues to form and become more diverse. The United States won their independence from Great Britain and started focusing on the development of a democracy. “The Preamble of the Constitution of the United States cited the promotion of the general welfare as one of the reasons for forming the new government but there was no mention about the social welfare concerns” (Axinn & Stern, p.38). As time continues to pass the United States enters into the pre/post civil war period in which leads into the Progressive Era.
      進步時代被稱為大變革,它發生在19世紀末和20世紀初。這一時期的重大變化包括貧困與工人階級、家庭福利和社會工作。由于該國經濟持續衰退,貧困和工人階級舉步維艱。Axinn&Stern指出,“管理婦女和兒童工作條件以及防止因工業引起的疾病和事故造成的收入損失的立法是一攬子計劃的第一部分,可能與家庭福利有著松散的聯系”。盡管許多婦女和兒童在工作,寄宿者和寄宿者分布廣泛,但這些家庭中有50%至66%是窮人。隨著家庭福利計劃的實施,第一部全州強制性法律得以確立。這項法律是《父母基金法》,為被收養的兒童提供資金。社會工作者與家庭和社會福利改革的決定有很大關系。在此期間,法律和工會的建立有助于制定兒童福利法律和兒童政策。盡管美國在進步時代確立了社會改革政策,但進入了蓬勃發展的20年代,他們已成為一個偉大的國家。
      The Progressive Era is known as the great change and it took place in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. The great changes of this period consist of poverty and the working class, family welfare, and social work. Poverty and the working class struggled because of the ongoing recessions in the country. Axinn & Stern states “Legislation to regulate the working conditions of women and children and to insure against loss of income due to industrially caused illness and accident was the first part of a package that might loosely be identified with family welfare” (p.145). Although many women and children was working and there was a wide spread of boarders and lodgers 50 to 66 percent of these families were poor. With the family welfare program the first statewide mandatory law was established. The law was the Fund to Parents Act in which providing funds for children who was adopted. Social workers had a lot to do with the decisions made towards the reforms of family and social welfare. During this time period, the establishment of laws and unions helped with the child welfare laws and policies for children. Although America established social reform policies during the progressive era they became a great nation entering into the roaring twenties.
      The Roaring Twenties was one of the great time periods for the American culture. During this time period there were many interventions such as the automobile, airplane, and the radio. Industrialization, banks, and the stock market started the beginning of a middle class in the US in which helped the country to grow economically. But the country was in for an awakening; On September 29, 1929 the stock market crashed and majority of the people in this country lost everything they had. This marked the beginning of the Depression.
      轟轟烈烈的二十年代是美國文化的偉大時期之一。在這一時期,有許多干預措施,如汽車、飛機和無線電。工業化、銀行和股票市場開創了美國中產階級的先河,幫助美國實現了經濟增長。但是這個國家正在覺醒;1929年9月29日,股市崩盤,這個國家的大多數人失去了他們所擁有的一切。這標志著大蕭條的開始。 
      The day the stock market crashed the United States lost over 14 billon dollars. In the next three years 74 billon dollars was lost and this cause unemployment rates to rise tremendously. Hundreds of thousands of Americas lost everything and lived in misery for example, people had to built homes from cardboard, scrap metal or whatever they could find in the dump city. These towns were called “Hooverville after the president whom they despised for his apparent refusal to help them” (Murrin et al., 2008, p. 919). When Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected he guaranteed social welfare for Americans that could not help themselves. His plan was called the New Deal.
      股市崩盤那天,美國損失了140多億美元。在接下來的三年里,損失了740億美元,這導致失業率大幅上升。成千上萬的美國人失去了一切,生活在苦難中。例如,人們不得不用硬紙板、廢金屬或他們在垃圾城市能找到的任何東西來建造家園。這些城鎮被稱為“Hooverville,以總統的名字命名,因為總統顯然拒絕幫助他們”。當羅斯福當選后,他保證了那些不能自救的美國人的社會福利。他的計劃被稱為新政。
      The New Deal started with the Emergency Banking Act in which provided federal loans to private banks. This caused banks that were left open to commit to the government and balance the budget provided. When Franklin D. Roosevelt spoke to the people of America over the radio and encouraged them to start putting their money back into the banks the people trusted him and did. The Glass Steagall Act was created at this time to protect up to 5000 dollars of the money put into savings.
      The next New Deal relief act that was established was the Economic Relief Act. The Economic relief help establish the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA), Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), and the Homeowner’s Loan Corporation. “The FERA and the CCC put more than 2 million single men to work planting trees and halting erosions” (Murrin et al., p. 932). The Homeowner’s Loan Companies refinanced mortgages for middle-class American threatened with the loss of their homes.
      The Industrial Reform help form the National Recovery Act (NRA). The National reform act was formed by General Hugh Johnson. General Johnson persuaded employers to raise minimum wages for their employees to about 30 to 40 cent in the industrial factories but in 1935 the NRA was ruled unconstitutional (Murrin et al., p. 936; 937). Although the NRA was ruled unconstitutional it formed the Public Works Administration. The PWA helped strengthen the work on roads, bridges, sewage systems, hospitals, airports, and schools.
      The Tennessee Valley Authority was one of the New Deal relief Acts that was called by the government. The TVA was created to control the flood of the Tennessee River by creating “water power to generate electricity, develop local industry, improve river navigability, and ease the poverty and isolation of the area inhabitants” (Murrin et al., p. 937). TVA helped improve over 20 dam sites and it was one of the New Deal’s most celebrated successes.
      The New Deal package also responded to the farmers’ troubles with the legislations and administrative regulations designed to ease credit and to raise the commodity prices by restricting output. On May 1933, Congress passed an Agricultural Adjustment Act. This act approved the obligation of production controls in order to achieve balance between the production and the consumption of far commodities at the parity level of farm income. In other words, the act sought to compensate farmers to not produce crops and dairies. This Agricultural Adjustment Act would boost demand and increase the prices of farm product. The restriction of output contributed to the decrease in the number of farms during the Depression year. “By 1940, the number of farms stood at 6,097,000, representing a ten year loss of almost 200,000 farms” (Axinn & Stern, p.179). Because the number of farms operated by whites is unchanged, the black farmers were the ones that suffered the loss. Black tenant farmers were more likely to face conviction due to the decrease in farm prices.
      Roosevelt consolidated all federal agricultural credit agencies into the Farm Credit Administration which passed the Farm Credit Act in 1933. The Farm Credit Act used federal money to pay off farm creditors and save farmers from bankruptcy. In addition, Roosevelt and Congress passed the Emergency Farm Mortgage Act during the New Deal in an attempt to limit farm foreclosures and allow debtors to stay on farm for up to five years after bankruptcy.
      Two acts that are known for historical importance are the Social Security Act and the National Labor Relations Act in which revolved into the second New Deal. “The Social Security Act, passed in May, required the states to set up welfare funds from which money would be disbursed to the elderly poor, the unemployed, unmarried mothers with dependent children, and the disabled” (Murrin et al., p. 945). This Social Security Act also enrolled majority of the working Americans in a pension program that guaranteed a steady income upon retirement.
      In 1964, Lyndon B. Johnson declared a “war on poverty” during his State of the Union Address and made poverty a national concern. The national’s concern on poverty laid a foundation of a series of bills and acts, creating programs such as Head Start, Food Stamps, Work Study, Medicare and Medicaid, which still exist today. In addition, Johnson also signed the omnibus Economic Opportunity Act of 1964. The law created the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) aimed at attacking the roots of American poverty. The OEO supply training for the underprivileged and create a range of community-action programs that give the underprivileged a voice in housing, health, and education programs. According to Axinn & Stern (p. 254), OEO provide low income, young people from minority group families with education, skills, and experiences that would be necessary for being successful. The programs started under Johnson brought about valid results, reducing rates of poverty and improved living standards for America’s poor.
      Johnson challenged Americans to build a “Great Society” that eliminated the troubles of the poor. Head Start provided educationally opportunity for the disadvantage children. Food stamps were the symbol of poverty and were an aid in feeding families with low income. The Federal Work-Study Program was an aid for students of low-income families to pay for higher education through the use of campus jobs. The Work-Study Program can consist of community service so that students can be able to work for local non-profit agencies in order to help pay tuition. Medicare and Medicaid were national funded medical coverage for the elderly and for low-income citizens (Murrin & et al., p. 109-1110).
      Overall, the Great Society was the greatest domestic policy since the New Deal. The Great Society accomplished several declines in poverty between 1965 and 1968, for example, the income of a black family escalated from 54 percent to 60 percent compared to the income of a white family. However, the War on Poverty was oversold by LBJ and others and never lived up to its initial expectations due to the demands of the poorly managed, under-financed, and over-politicized Vietnam War. Anti-poverty programs of Medicare and Medicaid, Head Start, Food Stamps, and some others made lasting contributions to the welfare of the American people.
      The Republican administration of President Nixon continued on with an ambitious governmental effort to address the problem of persistent poverty in the United States. Although President Nixon showed dislike for a large amount of the War on Poverty, his administration reacted to public scrutiny by keeping the majority of programs by increasing the welfare state through the liberalization of the Food Stamp program, the indexing of Social Security to inflation, and the passage of the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program for disabled Americans. President Nixon proposed a “Family Assistance Plan” as a domestic policy centerpiece, a proposal that sought to eliminate welfare and provide direct cash assistance to families instead (Kornbluh, 2007, p.137). The Nixon administration’s most noticeable contributions to the War on Poverty consisted of replacing the Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) with the Community Services Administration, redistributing control over many antipoverty programs to more traditional federal bureaucracies, and proposing a Family Assistance Plan that failed to gain congressional approval.
      President Gerald Ford presided over the worst economy since the Great Depression. In 1974, President Gerald Ford proposed policies that were to control inflation. A common approach is to have poverty rates lowered by having the economic growth high. High economic growth rate can however cancel out high inflation rates which can result in higher growth and poverty rates. When inflation occurs, it will be difficult for people to afford products. Consequently, there will be a rise in poverty. The inflation in food price increases the poverty level. It can cause the underprivileged families to ease food intake and rid other expenditures. Ford approved income tax returns as part of the Tax Reduction Act of 1975 that was to enhance the economy by calling effortlessly for a $22.8 billion tax cut. Ford signed this act in order to give back some money to taxpayers so they will be able to spend it. This spending in turn generates sales. These sales produce revenue for several parties who are able to buy, hire, and produce more. Ford visualized that, ultimately, the economy would increase and the inflation and unemployment numbers would decrease. As a result, the poverty level will decrease.
      In 1978, President Jimmy Carter developed an elaborate negative income tax plan which was to increase government spending. During his presidency, Carter worked hard to combat the continuing economic woes of inflation and unemployment. He also pushed reforms through the legislature, providing equal state aid to schools in the wealthy and poor areas of Georgia, set up community centers for mentally handicapped children, and increased educational programs for convicts. Carter took pride in a program he introduced for the appointment of judges and state government officials. To increase human and social services, Carter created the Department of Education, strengthened the Social Security system, and selected a record number of Black and Hispanic women to government jobs. During Carter’s reign, he volunteered for the Habitat for Humanity which helps low-income working people build and buy their own homes. By the end of Carter’s presidency, there were an increase of nearly eight million jobs and a decrease in the budget deficit.
      During Ronald Reagan’s presidency, his administration tightened eligibility requirements for welfare programs and reduced benefits. It hoped to lower costs and transfers responsibility for most assistance programs to the states, which the federal government would assume the expense of Medicaid and the states would accept responsibility for AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) and food stamps. Indecisive of the costs, the states did not agree. The Family Support Act (1988) emphasized employment and self-sufficiency, rigorous child-support efforts, and strengthened social services.
      Reagan ordered that the states were required to have Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) programs offering education, training, and work for recipients, and to provide child care to enable participation; included in the requirements was the enrollment of all able-bodied clients whose youngest child was at least age of three. States were also required to provide AFDC-UP (Aid to Families with Dependent Children-Unemployed Parent) to children in two-parent families that were needy because of the principal wage earner’s unemployment (Axinn & Stern, p. 297). Transitional Medicaid and child-care benefits were to be provided for those whose eligibility was lost as a result of increased employment income.
      George Herbert Walker Bush approved and signed the Unemployment Compensation Amendments of 1992, which allowed the unemployed to have their coverage extended for 26 weeks, following their original 26 weeks of benefits. In addition, Bush signed the Americans with Disabilities Act. A day prior, the Labor Department stated that the rate of unemployment had reached 7.8 percent, its highest level since 1984. In 1990 and 1991, Bush raised the minimum wage twice. The increases in minimum wage correlate with higher unemployment and poverty.
      During President Bill Clinton’s presidency, the unemployment rate was the lowest, inflation rate was the lowest in 30 years, the highest home ownership in the country’s history, dropping crime rates in many places, and reduced welfare rolls. He proposed the first balanced budget in decades and achieved a budget surplus. President Bill Clinton pledged during the 1992 election campaign to “end welfare as we know it,” but the cost of his visualized program exceeded that of the then-existing system.
      In 1995, the Clinton administration strengthened the regulations of the Community Redevelopment Act. The CRA allowed buyers to secure mortgages without any sort of verification of income or assets; there were little consideration of the applicant’s ability to make payments; and no down payment. In January 1996, intense and complex political maneuvering by President Clinton and Republican legislators about federal budget and policy issues was followed by a presidential veto of a welfare-reform bill enacted by Congress. By August 1996, Congress and Clinton agreed to revolutionary legislation abolishing the federal guarantee established six decades earlier to provide subsistence income for poor families with dependent children. Clinton signed into law the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act. This act charged each state with administering various public assistance programs.
      During George W. Bush presidency years, he ushered in a new era of social welfare policy. Bush urged people and communities to help one another as well as themselves. This philosophy became known as “compassionate conservation.” This philosophy was a reflection of the social welfare principles of colonial America that limited the intervention of the government, personal responsibility, the importance of family values, and the role of the faith community and the private sector in addressing the social welfare needs of the community. President Bush sought to cut tax for every federal income taxpayer, which unprecedented set off 52 straight months of job creations. President Bush modernized Medicare by adding a prescription drug benefit, a reform that provided access to needed medicine for 40 million seniors and other beneficiaries.
      Presently as President, Barack Obama has outlined plans to fight poverty and promote economic opportunity for American families. Obama feels that the society should be mobilized not to cut poverty but to prevent poverty. Obama’s plan to reduce poverty in stimulus bill that represents a continuation of a thirty year trends in policies affecting low-income families, targeting benefits through the tax system and not via direct programs. The stimulus bill will provide in-kind assistance over cash; and work supports over aid to non-workers. Obama fully embraces the notion that education is the key to escaping poverty. Obama sought forth new education funding of $54 billion to keep schools open in communities. The majority of the stimulus bill’s health and health care spending focuses on insurance coverage, but it also increases spending on research. About 17% of the health stimulus funding will go toward the continuation of health insurance coverage after job losses to help the newly unemployed pay their monthly premiums by covering about 65% of their premiums. Although this stimulus bill is in debate, Obama intends to leave a remarkable and tremendous mark on future social reform policies.
      In conclusion, in the United States, poverty is a culture, an institution, and a way of life. Poverty is a personal matter that concerns the poor and the not so poor. The demoralizing effects of the Great Depression caused a worldwide economic crisis that resulted in widespread hunger, poverty, and unemployment. Over a few decades, politicians and others have been sought to define poverty and set forth social welfare policies and acts that help alleviate poverty. Though these policies that have been sought forth have helped the United States, the issues of poverty will remain because the status of the rich and poor can change depending on the choices an individual makes in life. In today’s time, the choices that individuals make in life will ultimately determine whether poverty will decease or whether everyone will be doomed by poverty.
       
      美國essay范文在最后總結:在美國,貧困是一種文化、一種制度和一種生活方式。貧窮是關乎窮人和不那么窮的人的個人問題。大蕭條造成的士氣低落影響導致了一場世界性的經濟危機,導致了普遍的饑餓、貧困和失業。美國essay范文中提到幾十年來,政治家和其他人一直在努力界定貧困,并制定有助于減輕貧困的社會福利政策和行動。盡管這些政策對美國有所幫助,但貧困問題仍將存在,因為富人和窮人的地位可以根據個人在生活中的選擇而改變。在當今時代,個人在生活中所做的選擇最終將決定貧窮是否會消失,或者每個人是否都會被貧窮所注定。本站提供各國essay寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。


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