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      營銷學MBA ESSAY:Marketing Strategies of Tesla

      時間:2021-02-03 15:18來源:www.nguoikontum.com 作者:Hpan317 點擊:
      1.1 Marketing Objective
              當前特斯拉的主要目標是要發展中國的中高端新能源汽車市場,以獲得更廣泛的用戶群體來占據更大的市場份額。中國作為特斯拉的第二大消費市場,特斯拉2018年在中國的營收為17.57億美元,并且特斯拉已經在中國建設了超級工廠。所以特斯拉在未來的12個月內完成在中國營收達到20億美元的目標是可行的。根據5M模型,特斯拉要在MANPOWER,MACHANDISE,MATERIAL,METHOD,MANAGEMENT的基礎上制定目標。MANPOWER也就是要提前做好人力資源的管理。MACHANDISE是指特斯拉的產品,也就是要確定重點宣傳的車型,以及為該產品制定合適的營銷組合策略。MATERIAL也就是特斯拉要利用已有的資源對產品進行有效宣傳。METHOD是特斯拉要采取適當的措施成為時代的焦點,并消除客戶的疑慮從而讓目標客戶購買。MANAGEMENT是通過對整個流程的有效評估和把控來完成目標。
      The current marketing objective of Tesla is to develop China's mid- to high-end new energy vehicle market to obtain a wider user base to occupy a larger market share. As Tesla's second largest consumer market, Tesla's revenue in China in 2018 was $1.757 billion, and Tesla has built a super factory in China. So Tesla's goal of achieving $2 billion in revenue in China in the next 12 months is feasible. According to the 5M model, Tesla will set goals based on MANPOWER, MACHANDISE, MATERIAL, METHOD, and MANAGEMENT. MANPOWER is to manage human resources in advance. MACHANDISE refers to Tesla's products, that is, to identify the key models to promote, and to develop a suitable marketing mix strategy for the product. MATERIAL is Tesla to use the existing resources to effectively promote the product. METHOD is Tesla to take appropriate measures to become the focus of the times, and to eliminate customer concerns so that target customers can buy. The MANAGEMENT is to achieve the goal by effectively evaluating and controlling the entire process.


      圖:特斯拉中國工廠

      2.1 The Marketing Mix
      2.1.1 Product
              特斯拉以高端跑車定位其產品,并突出其高科技的形象。特斯拉通過其強大的研發能力,在市場上推出了Model S,Model X以及Model 3等一系列不同類型和不同價位的純電動汽車產品。比如Model S屬于小轎車而Model X屬于SUV,滿足了消費者差異化的產品需求。Model S,Model X屬于特斯拉的高端產品,而Model 3是特斯拉為了擴大市場份額而推出的中高端產品。Model 3仍然采用高科技的內部構造,只是在車型上沒有Model S,Model X那么流暢,以及配置沒有他們高端。Model S和Model X主要面向的是最高端的目標群體,然而中國的高端消費者數量較少且市場有限,不能無止境的擴大其市場份額。然而在中國,中高端汽車需求量仍然有很大的上升空間,所以特斯拉推出了Model 3和Model Y類型,即保留了高端的品牌價值,又能開拓中國的中低端市場,獲得更多的市場份額。并且,特斯拉所有的產品都高科技緊密相關,所以應該將高端的科技與環保作為特斯拉獨特的品牌精神。特斯拉將品牌精神作為一種附加產品推銷給客戶,讓消費者認同并并追求這一種獨特的價值。
      Tesla positioned its products with high-end sports cars and highlighted its high-tech image. Through its strong R&D capabilities, Tesla has introduced a range of pure electric vehicle products of different types and price points, such as Model S, Model X and Model 3. For example, Model S belongs to a small car and Model X belongs to an SUV, which satisfies the consumer's demand for differentiated products. Model S, Model X belongs to Tesla's high-end products, and Model 3 is Tesla's mid-to-high-end products to expand market share. The Model 3 still uses a high-tech internal structure, but the model and configuration are not model S, Model X high-end. Model S and Model X are mainly targeted at the highest-end target group. However, China has a small number of high-end consumers and limited market, and cannot expand its market share indefinitely. However, in China, the demand for medium and high-end cars still has a lot of room for growth, so Tesla introduced the Model 3 and Model Y types, which retains the high-end brand value and can open up the middle and low-end market in China and gain more market share. Moreover, all Tesla products are closely related to high technology, so high-end technology and environmental protection should be the unique brand spirit of Tesla. Tesla promotes brand spirit as an add-on product to customers, allowing consumers to identify and pursue this unique value.
       
      2.1.2 Price
      Tesla's pricing strategy in China is similar to the rouge pricing method. That is to say, firstly, higher profits are obtained from high-end users at a higher price, and in the case where the high-end market is almost saturated, the development of the mid-to-high-end market is started, and the lower-priced pure electric vehicles are used to seize more market share. Tesla's target group in the early days of China's development was a wealthy class with certain purchasing power and consumers with special emotions for high-tech cars. Tesla's pricing is to take advantage of the psychology of the target consumers, to meet the psychological needs of some consumers, and thus to obtain higher profits in the niche target market. However, the high-end market tends to saturate and Tesla's market share cannot continue to grow, so Tesla launched the economical model 3, which attracts more customers with general purchasing power at a lower price to obtain a steady growth in sales. . Tesla combines the left-brain strategy with the right-brain strategy, using the right-brain strategy to meet the emotional and psychological needs of high-end consumers, while using the left-brain strategy to satisfy rational consumers.
      Tesla also adopts a transparent price system in China, which is to align the pre-tax price of electric vehicles with the prices of other countries. A transparent pricing strategy allows consumers to be psychologically satisfied. With the commissioning of the Shanghai plant, the price of the Model 3 is likely to be around 300,000. This will be a big shock for China's electric vehicle market. Lower prices allow for higher potential user conversion rates, which is good for Tesla to grab market share.


      圖:The Marketing Mix
       
      2.1.3 Place
      At present, Tesla adopts a direct sales model in China, which means that no distributors or other third-party organizations are authorized to sell. However, this practice has been continuously questioned and its operating performance has been declining. Tesla's current sales model in China is similar to Apple's concept, including experience stores and online direct sales. Consumers can experience the quality of the product and experience the comfort of the product through the experience store. The sales staff of the experience store will not sell a certain product to the consumer, but will let the customer experience the product better. The experience store is usually set up in a high-end shopping mall, focusing on the style design of the experience store and the matching of the product types sold. High-end channel design can complement Tesla's brand positioning to capture target consumers more effectively. The experience store also provides test drive service for customers. Customers can get test drive opportunities through online appointments and truly experience Tesla products.
       
      Customers who want to buy a product can only purchase it at Tesla's official store, and the product will be sent directly from the manufacturer to the consumer's home. This direct sales model reduces the middlemen, which not only reduces the loss of profits for Tesla, but also reduces the price for consumers to a certain extent. However, Tesla's sales model is not in line with China's policy, and manufacturers directly invest in channels that violate car sales policies and regulations. Moreover, it is difficult for automakers to manage car sales, and car marketing needs to be handed over to professional car manufacturers to complete better. Moreover, Tesla's factory in China is about to be put into production, and the increase in production requires better channels for sales of products. Therefore, according to the actual situation, Tesla can adopt the capital investment mode of vertical distribution channels, that is, own and control production, retail institutions, comprehensive management of commodity production, wholesale and retail business. Adopting a new channel model will help Tesla gain a greater competitive advantage in China compared to other local electric vehicle brands.


      圖:Marketing audits


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