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      Literature review格式范文:Literature Review On The Determination

      時間:2021-08-31 10:18來源:www.nguoikontum.com 作者:cinq 點擊:
      Literature review是研究的重要內容之一,目的是獲得更廣泛的觀點。根據Uma Sekaran的觀點,Literature review可以定義為一種廣泛的文獻綜述,通過文獻綜述,研究者可以從二次數據中獲得研究者特別感興趣的領域的已發表和未發表的工作。它討論了課題的重要性,研究中使用的理論或方法的類型,以及提供特定領域的背景和歷史。此外,Literature review 過程分為三個步驟。首先是確定各種材料和途徑,其次是收集相關信息,第三是撰寫文獻綜述。一項好的研究應該包括八個重要的要素,包括目的性、有效性、可復制性、可推廣性、客觀性、可靠性、可測試性,以及能夠創造新事物或更好地稱之為嚴謹性。我們可以通過書籍、報告、專著、論文、會議記錄、工作論文等收集文獻綜述來源,其中最常用的是期刊研究論文。 下面小編就給各位提供一篇Literature review格式范文供參考。
      Literature review格式范文
      Literature review格式范文
      Literature review is one of the important elements in research in order to gain broader ideas. According to Uma Sekaran, literature review can be defined as a broad documentation review by which published and unpublished work from secondary data in the areas of a particular interest to the researcher. It discusses the importance of the subject, the type of theory or method used in the research and as well as to provide with the background and history of a particular area. Furthermore, there are 3 steps in the literature review process. Firstly is to identify the various material and access, secondly to gather the relevant information, and thirdly to write up the literature review. A good research should consist of eight important elements including purposiveness, validity, replicability, generalisability, objectivity, reliability, testability, and able to create a new thing or better known as rigor. We can gather literature review sources through books, reports, monograph, thesis, conference proceeding, working papers, and the most commonly used by many is the journal research articles.
      The Determination of Housing Price 住房價格的確定
      房屋是人類基本生活需要的重要組成部分之一。人們需要一個遠離危險、炎熱天氣、雨天的房子,以及一個保持平靜的地方。只要人們能享受到住在屋頂下的舒適,那就叫做房子。然而,重要的是一個人能否買得起房子。有些人買得起一套住起來很舒服的房子,有些人買不起。被稱為富人和名人的人能買得起一棟幾乎被稱為天堂的房子,有些人只能住在普通但舒適的房子里。但我們的房子看起來如何并不重要,因為房價才是最重要的。我們可以看到,隨著時間的推移,房價在上漲。這可能是一個值得關注的重要領域,因為它或多或少會影響一個國家的經濟水平。因此,房價可以定義為一個人為了購買一套房子而必須支付的支付率,當然有幾個因素會導致房價的確定。
      House is one of the important elements in basic human needs. People need a house to stay away from danger, hot weather, rainy day and as well as a place to stay calm. As long as people can fill the comfort of living under a roof then it is called a house. However, the things that matter is that the affordability of a person to purchase a house. Some people can afford a house that is really comfortable to stay in and some not. People who are called the rich and famous can afford a house that is almost called a heaven and some can only lives in an ordinary but comfortable house. But it doesnmatter how our house may look like because the price of house is what that matter. We can see that the housing price is increasing as the time goes by. This may be an important area to look upon because more or less it could affect the economic level of a country. Therefore, a housing price can be defined as the rate of payment that one has to pay in order to purchase a house and for sure there are several factors that lead to housing price determination.
      以我個人的觀點,我認為房價的上漲是由于原材料價格的上漲。許多人可能有類似的想法,但在為我的提議主題查閱了10份期刊作為參考之后,我發現了幾個更重要的變量,導致了房價決定因素。很少有知識淵博的人能夠找到影響房價的因素。一位使用實證分析進行研究的人指出,收入(人口統計趨勢)和名義利率是房價的關鍵解釋因素。另一方面,股票收益率也可能是決定住房價格的一個影響因素。其他研究表明,本研究采用了實證研究方法、面板單位根檢驗、面板協整和誤差修正模型。收入水平和利率是主要影響因素,兩者的結果相似。但它是用另一種方法測試的,即當前的收入水平和利率決定了個人可以從金融機構借多少錢來買房。借款人可以從銀行或金融機構借款多少的決定是確定房價水平的一種方法。比如利率越高,房價就越高。然而,在Yazgi&Dokmeci的研究中發現了另一個不同的觀點,在該研究中,應用多元回歸模型,發現影響房價的最重要因素是建筑面積的大小。第二個和第三個最有效的因素是路面比率和建筑面積,第四個因素是住房到海邊的距離。這意味著,樓層越大,購買者需要支付的錢就越多。本研究明顯不同于以往的研究。它著眼于地理區域。Hiebert&Roma通過實證和回歸分析進行的研究表明,盡管特定地點與設施相關,但不同城市的人口差異影響更大。因此,即使一個特定的地點是完全便利的,人們仍然會喜歡居住在人口中。使用新的季度區域面板數據集的其他研究表明,在14個地區中,有11個地區在住房服務和便利設施價值方面具有重大影響??深A測的價格預期是房價上漲的主要原因。因此,研究發現,住房價格受區域經濟活動、區域住房存量和資本使用者成本的影響。
      In my own point of view, I believe that the increment of a housing price is due to the price increment in the raw material. Many may have similar idea but after looking into 10 journals as references for my propose topic, I have found out several more important variables that leads to the factors of housing price determination. There are few number of knowledgeable individual turned up and able to find the contributing factors in determination of housing price. One who has studied using an empirical analysis has shown that income (demography trends) and nominal interest rates are the key explanatory factors in housing price. On the other hand, the equity returns may also have been an influential factor in the determination o housing price (Pages & Maza, 2003). In other studies shown that, the empirical approach, panel unit root test, panel co-integration, and error correction model were applied in the research. The result is similar in which the level of income and interest rate were the main factors. But it was tested in a different method whereby the current level of income and interest rates determine how much an individual can borrow from financial institutions in order to purchase a house. This decision of how much the borrower can borrow from the bank or financial institutions is one of a way to determine the level of house price (McQuinn & Rielly, 2007). For example, the higher the interest rate, the higher the price of housing. However, another different point of view can be found in the study of Yazgi & Dokmeci (2007), in which, applied the multiple regression model and it was found that the most important factor affecting the housing prices is the size of the floor area. The second and third most effective factors are the road surface ratio and the floor area, and fourth factor is the distance of housing to the seashore. This means, the bigger the size of floor the more money a purchaser will have to pay. This study is obviously different from the previous study. It looked upon the geographical area. The studies of Hiebert & Roma (2010) by using the empirical and regression analysis have shown that even though a particular location is associated with facilities, population differences across cities influenced more. Therefore, even if a particular location is fully facilitated, people will still prefer living among a population. Other studies that used the new quarterly regional panel data set shown that out of 14 regions, there were 11 regions that have the major impacts in term of housing services and amenity values. The price expectations that is predictable contribute to the increased of housing price. Thus, it was found that the price of housing is influenced by the regional economic activity, the regional housing stock and the user cost of capital (Grimes et al, 2004).
      在另一個不同的研究中,相關分析和多元回歸分析是由一個馬來西亞人進行的。研究表明,馬來西亞人均收入、失業率、住房貸款總額和KLSE綜合指數對馬來西亞房價的變動起著重要作用。這意味著,經濟和金融因素被確定為適用于確定住房單位的需求和供應。在Allen等人的一項研究中,通過實證分析,得出了新房價格、工會工資、建筑許可證的發放情況。根據Yan等人的實證分析和誤差修正模型的誤差修正表明,土地供應對房價波動的影響較大,而需求因素如使用者成本、收入和住房抵押貸款對房價波動的影響較大。從長遠來看,價格受土地供應和金融體系的影響。然而,在短期內,土地供應和金融體系的變化會對使用者成本、收入和住房抵押貸款產生影響。另外,由使用者成本、收入、住房抵押貸款等構成的需求因素對房價波動的影響更大。在麥克米倫的其他研究中,使用傅立葉重復銷售方法,發現收入和人口可以影響房價。然而,他隨后發現,由于住房成本的增加,收入較高的人搬到了芝加哥市的老城區。在Hilbers等人的另一項研究中,實證分析表明,用戶成本、人口統計學(年齡、性別、收入)因素和產出對住房價格的決定有影響。結果發現,影響最大的因素是收入和用戶成本。
      In another different study, correlation and multiple regression analysis was applied by a Malaysian namely Tan. The study shown that the Malaysiansper capita income, unemployment rate, total loans to housing and KLSE Composite Index plays important role in the movement of Malaysian house price. This means, the economic and financial factors were identified as applicable in determining the demand and supply of housing units. In a study of Allen et al (2006), by using the empirical analysis, new house price, union wages, issuance of building permit. According to Yan et al (2010), an empirical analysis and the error correction model error correction shown that land supply has a major impact on house price fluctuations while demand factors such as user costs, income and residential mortgage loan have greater influences. In the long run, the price is influenced by the land supply and the financial system. However, in the short run, the changes in land supply and financial system will then effect on the user costs, income, and residential mortgage loan. To add more, the demand factors which consist of the user cost, income, and residential mortgage loan is found to give greater impact in the price fluctuations of housing price. Again in other studies of McMillen (2003) using the Fourier repeat sales approach, it was found that income and population can influenced the prices of house. However, he then found out that people with higher income moved into the older part of the area in Chicago city due to the increasing housing cost. In another study of Hilbers et al (2008), the empirical analysis shown that user costs, demographic (age, gender, income) factors and output gives impact in the determination of housing price. It was found that the most influential factors were the income and the user costs.
      After went through the journals on housing, it helps to indentify and considered the contributing factors in the determination of housing price. I have found out several factors that contribute in the determination of housing price. Those factors I have found includes the interest rate, income, geographical area, population, unemployment rate, housing loan, KLSE Composite Index, user cost and as well the economic activity and regional housing stock. But, the most common factors are the interest rate, income, population, and user costs. In another way, it also helps to figure out the type of analysis or framework that had already been used as a method in research. As an advantage, it will help to determine which method is the best choice to be used in the research. Therefore, when the method to be used is already discovered, it will enable researcher to formulate suitable theory in order to test or formulate hypotheses.
      Conceptual Framework 概念框架
      Interest rate
      Income
      Housing Price
      User costs
      Land supply
      Financial system
      Population
      Conceptual framework or better known as the Theoretical framework is a conceptual model of how one came up with a theory or to make a logical sense of the relationship among the identified factors of a particular problem. It consists of the independent variables on the left side while the dependent variable on the right side as the above sketches of theoretical framework. The independent variable can be defined as one lends itself. On the other hand, the dependent variable does not lend itself. In addition, variables refer to anything that differ values.
      The independent variables consist of interest rate, income, user costs, land supply, financial system, and population. Interest rate refers to the interest rate on bank loans or land value. When interest rate increases, the house price will increase too. Income is one important element in determining the housing price, whereby, income may determine that a house can be afforded or not. User costs refer to the cost by a particular person. It plays an important role because the when user cost doesnexist then it is not easy to determine the price of house. Land supply is also an important factor whereby a land needed an approval before building a house on it. Financial system refers to the housing loan from bank, residential mortgage loan or the conditions of economic of a particular country. Population refers to the people living in an area. More population means demand on housing will increasing and therefore leads to supply of housing. On the other hand, the dependent variable only consist of one variable in which the housing price. The housing price depends on the any changes in the independent variables. Small changes in one of the independents variable will give effect in the determination of housing price.
       
      Literature review中提出自變量包括利率、收入、使用者成本、土地供應、金融體系和人口。利率是指銀行貸款利率或土地價值。當利率上升時,房價也會上升。收入是決定住房價格的一個重要因素,因此,通過Literature review總結收入可能決定一所房子能否負擔得起。用戶成本是指特定人的成本。它起著重要的作用,因為當用戶成本不存在時,就不容易確定房價。土地供應也是一個重要因素,土地在建造房屋之前需要獲得批準。金融體系是指從銀行獲得的住房貸款、住房抵押貸款或特定國家的經濟狀況。人口是指生活在一個地區的人。更多的人口意味著對住房的需求將增加,從而導致住房供應。另一方面,因變量只包含一個變量,其中住房價格。住房價格取決于自變量的任何變化。其中一個獨立變量的微小變化將對房價的確定產生影響。本站提供各國留學生Literature review寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。


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