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      Coursework范文:Asian Popular Culture亞洲流行文化

      時間:2021-06-25 09:13來源:www.nguoikontum.com 作者:cinq 點擊:
      Coursework怎么寫?很多留學生都不清楚Coursework是什么,本文就給大家展示一篇留學生Coursework 范文,主要內容是講述流行文化在哪些方面幫助解決、面對和改變了亞洲的社會問題(如政治、性、人權和環境)?它的方法有多有效?它的局限性是什么?至少用了一個相關流行文化文本(電影、電視節目、音樂等)的具體案例來支持作者的答案。是一篇符合Coursework格式要求的留學生作業。
       
      Coursework怎么寫
      Coursework怎么寫

      Introduction  簡介
      社會問題是多種多樣的,從一開始就發生了變化。隨著社會的發展和對新技術、新生活方式的適應,人們的思想觀念也在發生變化??v觀歷史,社會對某些事物的看法或觀點都發生了變化。例如,在過去,婦女不被視為可辨認的選民,但隨著時間的推移,這種意識形態發生了變化。社會意識形態的變化往往不是一蹴而就的。它們逆著水流逐漸發生。這些變化可能是由革命引起的。最近,有一種更微妙、更不致命的方式帶來變革。大眾文化是一種娛樂方式,它是社會通過藝術創作的反映,它有能力影響人們的心靈去看待和欣賞變化。大眾文化以媒體為代表,是解決和改變包括性在內的許多社會問題的社會觀點的關鍵因素。
      Social issues are diverse and have changed since the beginning of time. As society grows and adapts to new technology and new ways of life so do the ideologies held by the people change. Throughout history, society’s views or perspectives about certain things have changed. For example, in the past women were not considered as legible voters but as time progressed this ideology changed. Often changes in the social ideology do not happen overnight. They happen gradually pushing against the current. These changes may be brought about by revolutions. Recently, there is a more subtle and less deadly way to bring about change. Popular culture is a mode of entertainment, it is a reflection of the society through the creation of art, it has the ability to influence the mind to see and appreciate change. Popular culture is represented by the media and is a key factor in addressing and changing society’s perspective on a lot of social issues including sexuality.
      Homosexuality in china 中國的同性戀
      在亞洲,性行為被認為是普遍的,唯一被接受的性行為形式是異性戀。長期以來,同性戀者被貼上罪犯和越軌者的標簽,導致這類人需要躲藏起來生活。同性戀者面臨著公眾和當局的歧視和虐待。同性戀在中國的歷史可以追溯到中國早期,當時的做法是在主人和仆人之間。此外,它發生在妾人口中,并發展到有婦女締結契約,永不結婚,作為婚姻的參與者住在寺廟里。有趣的是,在中國早期,同性戀得到了很好的容忍和接受,直到外國文化的引入,這種做法被貼上了不道德和精神疾病的標簽。寬容是可能的,因為這種做法對兩性都有好處。
      In Asia, sexuality was regarded and considered as generic and that the only form of sexuality accepted was heterosexuality. For a long time, homosexuals were labeled as criminals and deviant, resulting in the need to live in hiding for people in such categories. Homosexuals face discrimination and mistreatment by the public and the authorities. Homosexuality in China dates back to early China in which case the practice was between master and servant. Additionally, it occurred within the concubine population and developing to having women forming pacts to never marry and live in a temple as participants of a marriage. Interestingly, in early china homosexuality was well tolerated and accepted until the introduction of foreign culture that labeled the practice immoral and resulting from mental illness. Tolerance was possible because the practice was of benefit to both genders especially the patriarchs. 
      During the Cultural Revolution, homosexuality was not acceptable and homosexuals had to hide their homosexuality. Legally, there is no law against homosexuality though it was formally a non-criminal act tried as hooliganism, up until the term was removed from the law. However, homosexuality is widely accepted as a mental illness, an alternative lifestyle, and even a form of psychopathy. Mental health professionals have treated and labeled it a disease that is preventable by proper sexual education for children.
      In modern times, there are a few cases of discrimination against homosexuals though the practice is gaining acceptance. One can marry a member of their sex though they cannot apply for a marriage license. More gay bars are open and there is no restriction in the activities one can participate in. These developments have in part due to the gay rights activists and the image portrayed by the media. However, the media has had an impact on both the image homosexuals have of themselves and the image the population should have of homosexuality (Zhang, 2014).
      Pop culture on the tolerance to homosexuality 流行文化對同性戀的寬容
      Mainstream media largely associates gays with crime and HIV/AIDS. Mainstream media’s portrayal of gays takes an entertainment approach rather than a gay rights approach. Most homosexual characters are depicted in an unrealistic way often as very exuberant and promiscuous as is the case in Will and Gracewhere Jack McFarland who is flamboyant and promiscuous gay character (Kohan, 1998).Despite this, there have been films or programs that have portrayed homosexuals in a positive light that have subsequently caused the viewers to gain more tolerance to homosexuals. The Fish and elephant, Li Yu’s film is considered as the first lesbian film in china, it was made without support from the Chinese government and was not shown in mainland china except during a gay film festival which was shut down. However, it has made it to several film festivals in the world. The main character is a lesbian living a normal life, she confesses her sexual orientation to her cousin who remarks that something is wrong and if she wanted him to, he could get her a doctor. On a blind date, she tells her date that she doesn’t like men and that he thinks that it is because she has limited contact with men. In the final scene of the movie, she confesses to her mother whose reaction is one of shock. It is important to realize that the actor who played the role of her mother did not know of the scene with the confession at the time the film was made. Therefore, her reaction is valid and not directed by the script. Additionally, the film shed light on the situation in china, the public was largely uninformed about homosexuality and was prone to misconceptions (Shi, 2004).
       With the emergence of Cui Zi’en as a homosexual, the homosexual community received a lot of publicity from the interview the director had with various talk shows and articles. This earned him the title of the unofficial spokesperson of the gay community. Cui Zi’en has directed various gay films (Zhang, 2012). While in China, Chinese gay films receive high levels of censorship the west doesn’t censor gay films. This quality in china limits the ability of the films to accurately represent the lives of homosexuals. Though the films promote tolerance of homosexuals, the information on homosexuals is not accurate.
      Films such as ‘and the spring comes’ largely create an atmosphere in which homosexuality is not allowed or acceptable. Other films that negatively depict homosexuality fuel the dislike and demonization of homosexuals. Films that show homosexuals living normal lives holding desired careers encourage acceptance of homosexuals, restoring their previously demonized nature to more human nature. It creates a sense of understanding for homosexuals, it removes all previous misconceptions associated with the gay community enable the population to see homosexuals as people just like them, with the same needs as everybody else. Netflix has a lot of films featuring homosexuals, the streaming service is accessible in China though through Virtual Private Networks. Majority of the homosexual films on the network portray an air of acceptance surrounding the existence of homosexuals. These movies and series normalize gays and the majority of the gay characters hold very desirable positions in the society, and their standing in the community has little to do with their sexual orientation. On the one hand, some films give gays a positive image while others give gays a negative image. This attests to the fact that movies do have the ability to influence one’s self-image especially for homosexuals as a minority group especially in china where public meetings of homosexuals are practically outlawed.
      Popular culture on the identity of homosexuals 大眾文化對同性戀者身份的影響
      The gay community has been sidelined by the mainstream media in China. From this perspective it is a difficult task for a member of the gay community to find information about themselves. This niche has been filled by the introduction of the internet, now gays can find an online community to interact with and find answers to questions about being gay. This opens up into the physical realm, with arranged meetups in public spaces. The internet plays a momentous role in the self-identification of the gay community. The internet is giving an opportunity to work on the emancipation of the gay community. It is not possible for gay activists to hold public rallies and demonstrations, the community now uses the internet to recruit volunteers to the movement as well as to develop and grow the gay community (Cao and Lu, 2014). 
       The effect of the portrayal of gays in movies on the homosexual individual in a large way describes and projects an image of what personality they should hold and the behavior they should display. In a lot of homosexual movies, gays are often given sissy qualities that are ridiculed in real life. When a homosexual sees the ridicule shown in films, it creates a sense of shame and fear. In the film; and the spring comes, Hu Jinquan abhors himself and constantly experiences ridicule and insults from the community. A Lan from East place, West place hates himself for being gay. These feelings of self-hate and disgust are not true for all gay characters in films. In Brooklyn nine-nine, Captain Raymond Holt is confident and content with his sexuality (Marocco, 2013). Celebrities have risen up in support of the rights of the gay community. Leslie Cheung, Wong Yiu-Ming, and Denise Ho are singers who have taken up roles as activists for gay rights. The singers are also members of the homosexual community. Other artists have retained their sexual preference as ambiguous and are role models for the gay community. Such artists are Roman Tam whose music sheds new light on masculinity and Yam Kim-Fai who played male and female roles in Cantonese opera. Celebrities and media personalities are using the internet’s social media sites to either speak up for homosexuality. In that respect the internet is both a blessing and a curse for homosexuals, it provides an opportunity to gain support from peers and influencers but it is a source of criticism by people that do not support the practice.
      Different forms of media affect homosexuals for example magazines; magazines often share information about various things such as fashion the inclusion of lesbian or gay models would act as a form of inclusion for the homosexual community. If there is no representation of homosexuals in media it deducts from their sense of self-worth and they are unable to relate and identify with the fashion industry. A study into the effect of the media on homosexual identity shows that homosexuals use media personalities to develop their own identities (Gomillion & Guiliano, 2011).
       

      Coursework格式
      Coursework格式

      Conclusion 結論
      Multiple studies by research have discovered that the media influences individual members of the society and the society as a whole. Works of media have an influence on homosexuality, either to promote it or destroy it. Generally, the media is in the middle of every social change or revolution.  Individual views on social issues are to an extent are shaped by the media, either the world of media themselves, media personalities or the forums and discussions held on social media. Numerous movements and advocacy for change in various attitudes have been created and advanced by the media. 
      Additionally, the media is a reflection of society, it is a lens through which the attitudes and state of society may be viewed. One can only change an aspect that needs change after the knowledge of the aspect. After revealing the attitude that society has towards homosexuality then the media can also find use in changing the attitudes of society. Not only does the media have the potential to create a positive image but also may create a negative image of homosexuality. Through the media, homosexuals have developed a positive identity, one of pride and through the same media, homosexuals have developed a negative identity.  Works of media considered as a popular culture have played a key role in advancing the rights of homosexuals and humanizing homosexuality where it once had demonized it. In the course of history in either writing, film, or song creative works have been made that paint pictures that define homosexuality in society. Such media have influenced the perception of homosexuality. In the past, the perception has been negative and recently it has shifted to positivity, from being regarded as an immoral practice and mental illness to the current view as an acceptable alternative way of life. Popular culture has grown to be an essential tool for changing and shifting attitudes in society. It may either be the agent of positive change or negative change depending on the person that wields it.
       
      References 參考文獻
      Zhang, X. (2014). Portrayals of gay characters in Chinese movies: A longitudinal view. (Master’s thesis). Iowa State University, Iowa.
      Cao, J., & Lu, X. (2014). A Preliminary Exploration of the Gay Movement in Mainland China: Legacy, Transition, Opportunity, and the New Media. Signs,39(4), 840-848. DOI: 10.1086/675538
      Shi, L (2004). Beginning a New Discourse: The First Chinese Lesbian Film “Fish and Elephant”. Film Criticism,28(3), 21-36.
      Zhang, J. (2012). Cui Zi’en’s “Night Scene” and China's Visual Queer Discourse. Modern Chinese Literature and Culture,24(1), 88-111. 
      Gomillion, S., & Guiliano, T. (2011). The Influence of Media Role Models on Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Identity. Journal of homosexuality, 58, 330-354.DOI:10.1080/00918369.2011.546729
      Kohan, D. (Producer). (1998). Will and grace [TV series]. NBC.
      Available on Netflix
      Marocco, D. (Producer). (2013). Brooklyn nine-nine [TV series]. NBC.
      Available on Netflix
       
      Coursework格式大致如上文中所體現的,和大部分留學生作業在形式上區別并不是很大,一般是作為留學生課程作業。針對不同專業和研究方向,Coursework格式還是存在細小的差別,針對此問題,留學生朋友們可以咨詢本站Coursework寫作輔導。
       


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