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      留學生作業:企業定位策略研究

      時間:2020-08-31 15:31來源:www.nguoikontum.com 作者:Hpan317 點擊:
      Positioning strategies are critical to the business (Diana 2018). As the difference in people's needs grows, it is impossible for a company to perfectly meet the needs of different consumers at the same time. Even if all the resources can be spent to satisfy consumers, this is not an effective economic benefit pursued by the company. This paper first describes the concept of positioning strategy and the issues to be considered when positioning. The article also describes the relationship between customer analysis, market analysis, internal analysis, competitive analysis and positioning strategy.
      定位策略對于企業來說至關重要。隨著人們需求的差異化不斷增大,一個企業不可能同時完美的滿足不同消費者的需求。即使可以花費所有資源去滿足消費者,但這也不是企業追求的有效的經濟效益。這篇論文首先講述了定位策略的概念以及定位時要考慮的問題。文章同時還講述了顧客分析,市場分析,內部分析以及競爭分析與定位策略的聯系。
       

       
      The positioning strategy is defined by the company's use of advertising to create a distinctive feature that distinguishes the company's products or services from other competing products, so that products and services can establish their unique attributes and values ??in the minds of consumers (Diana 2018). The purpose of the positioning strategy is to enable the company to occupy a unique position in the minds of consumers and to create a sustainable trend in the minds of consumers, so that the company can obtain a favorable market competitive position. Since the company cannot meet the differentiated needs of all consumers, the positioning strategy should be single, that is, only serve one or several types of users (Lovelock & Wirtz 2011). At the same time, this positioning must be able to distinguish the company from other competitors. In fact, the concept of positioning is not limited to the company's services or products. Lovelock & Wirtz (2011) said that the positioning strategy also includes the company's analysis of current services, such as what the current company's products represent in the minds of consumers and potential consumers, who is the current and future users of the company, what is the target market for the current service, and the difference between the company's products and competitors, and also the changes that companies need to make in order to remain competitive. In general, positioning is divided into three types: function, symbol and experience position (Venter, Wright & Dibb 2015). For example, Tesla's positioning is a high-end luxury sports car, this positioning meets the needs of consumers to use the car to display their status. This positioning differentiates Tesla from other new energy vehicle competitors and accounts for a large share of the high-end automotive market (Alghalith 2018). A study of 101 companies in the United States found that companies that use competitive positioning strategies have higher profitability than those that are not clearly positioned (Diana 2018). This fully illustrates the importance of positioning.

      定位策略的定義是公司利用廣告宣傳,為公司的產品或服務創造一種能區別于其他競爭產品的特色,從而使產品和服務在消費者心中樹立其獨特的屬性和價值觀。定位策略的目的在于公司讓其產品占據消費者心目中獨特的地位以及在消費者心中創造可持續發展的趨勢,從而使公司獲得有利的市場競爭地位。由于公司無法滿足所有消費者的差異化需求,所以定位策略應該是單一的,也就是僅僅為一類或幾類用戶提供服務。同時,這個定位必須是能夠讓公司明顯區別于其它競爭對手。實際上,定位的概念不僅僅局限于公司的服務或產品。它還包括了公司對當前服務的分析,如當前公司產品在消費者和潛在消費者心中代表什么,公司目前和未來的用戶是誰,當前服務的目標市場是什么,公司產品與競爭者有何不同,以及為了保持競爭地位公司需要做出的改變。一般來說,定位分為功能,象征和經驗位置這三種類型。比如說,特斯拉的定位是高端豪華跑車,這種定位滿足了消費者利用汽車來顯示自己身份地位的需求。這種定位讓特斯拉區別于其他新能源汽車競爭者,占據了很大一部分高端汽車市場的份額。美國對101家企業進行研究發現,采用競爭定位策略的企業比沒有明確定位的企業的盈利能力更高。這充分說明了定位的重要性。
       


      In marketing theory, the three core elements of positioning strategy are market segmentation, target market and market positioning (Lovelock & Wirtz 2011). They are called STP and are the cornerstone of their positioning strategy. They are directly linked to STP through customer analysis, market analysis, internal analysis and competitive analysis, and thus indirectly associated with positioning strategies. Market segmentation refers to the division of consumers into different market segments by relying on differences in consumer demand (Krause & Battenfeld 2019). Market segmentation includes market analysis and customer analysis, while market analysis includes analysis of customers. The basic forms of market segments are geographic segmentation, demographic segmentation, psychological segmentation, and behavioral segmentation (McDonald 2013). Geographic segmentation is to segment the market according to the geographic location and natural environment of the consumer. For example, the overall market is divided into different market segments according to differences in country, region, city size, climate and population density (Asiedu 2019). For example, Haier mainly sells refrigerators in the US market according to the lifestyle habits Americans prefer to buy a lot of food at one time (Venter, Wright & Dibb 2015). Population segmentation is based on demographic variables such as age, gender, income, occupation, education, religion, and nationality (Asiedu 2019). For example, the bubble gum market in Japan is monopolized by Lauter, but Jiangsaki Sugar Company has divided the bubble market according to age, thus making the adult bubble market as its target market and occupying a large market share (Venter, Wright & Dibb 2015). Krause & Battenfeld (2019) said that social banking customers differ from traditional bank customers in terms of sociodemographic statistics. Compared with traditional bank customers, social banking customers tend to be younger and more educated. Becoming a social banking customer is more about education than income (Krause & Battenfeld 2019). Psychological variables are market segments based on psychological factors such as the social class and lifestyle of the buyer (Asiedu 2019). For example, Tesla is subdividing its customers with consumer variables. Through its high-end positioning of its brand, Tesla uses its consumer demand for brand and display identity to target high-end customers (Alghalith 2018). According to the buyer's behavioral variables such as the pursuit of interests, attitudes and usage rate, the consumers are divided into different groups, called behavior subdivision (Asiedu 2019). For example, Procter & Gamble launches different types of shampoos based on the interests of consumers (McDonald 2013). Market analysis analyzes and categorizes the different needs of customers, which helps companies select their target customers and position their services.

      在營銷理論中,定位策略的三個核心要素是市場細分,目標市場和市場定位。他們被稱為STP營銷,是定位策略的基石。它們通過顧客分析,市場分析,內部分析和競爭分析與STP直接聯系起來,從而間接與定位策略相關聯。市場細分是指依靠消費者的需求差異,將消費者劃分到不同的細分市場。市場細分中包含了市場分析和顧客分析,而市場分析則包含了對顧客的分析。細分市場的基本形式是地理細分、人口細分、心理細分和行為細分。地理細分是按照消費者所處的地理位置和自然環境來細分市場,比如,根據國家、地區、城市規模、氣候和人口密度等方面的差異將整體市場分為不同的細分市場。例如,海爾根據美國人喜歡一次性購入很多食品的生活習慣,在美國市場主要銷售冰箱。人口細分是根據人口變量,如年齡、性別、收入、職業、教育程度、宗教和國籍等為基礎進行市場細分。如日本泡泡糖市場被勞特公司壟斷,但江崎糖業公司將泡泡堂市場根據年齡進行細分,從而將成人泡泡堂市場作為它的目標市場并占據了很大的市場份額。研究顯示,社會銀行客戶在社會人口統計方面與傳統銀行客戶存在差異。與傳統的銀行客戶相比,社會銀行客戶往往更年輕、受教育程度更高。成為社會銀行客戶更多的與教育有關,而不是收入。心理變量是根據購買者所處的社會階層和生活方式等心理因素進行市場細分。比如,特斯拉就是以消費者心里變量對其客戶進行細分。特斯通過其品牌的高端定位,利用消費者對品牌和顯示身份的需求,從而將高端客戶作為它的目標客戶。根據購買者對產品的利益追求、態度及使用率等行為變量,將消費者劃分成不同的群體,叫行為細分。比如,保潔根據消費者差異化的利益追求,推出不同類型的洗發水。市場分析將顧客的不同需求進行了分析以及分類,這有助于企業選擇目標客戶并定位其服務。
       
      Choosing the target market is an assessment of the attractiveness of each market segment, combined with the company's existing and potential resources to select the best target market (Dibb & Simkin 2009). In other words, consider whether the company currently has sufficient resources and sufficient capacity to participate in market segmentation competition (Ciobota & Velea 2015) . Therefore, the company must analyze its own resources through internal analysis. The company's internal analysis is to select the target market to serve through the analysis of resources, reputation, limitations and value, and at the same time obtain the advantages that can be emphasized to customers, that is, the core competitiveness of the company (Lovelock & Wirtz 2011). Analysis of corporate resources includes analysis of financial, human, technical, and physical assets (Ciobota & Velea 2015). By analyzing this, companies can refine their unique resources and capabilities, and the advantages that other organizations can't imitate become the core competitiveness of the company. For example, Tesla's current financial situation is in the stage of continuous income increase, and the geographical advantage of its company in Silicon Valley makes Tesla obtain excellent technical personnel, which makes it occupy the high-tech status of the new energy automobile industry (Alghalith 2018). For Qualcomm to monopolize the chip, its reputation is not very good. However, because Qualcomm's innovative ability is very strong and technology is difficult to be replicated, its customer base must rely on Qualcomm in order to survive in the industry (Diana & Tanja 2010). The company can only clarify the market positioning if it understands the competitive advantage in internal analysis.


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