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      Research proposal格式范文:esearch proposal of ethical issues by

      時間:2021-07-29 10:43來源:www.nguoikontum.com 作者:cinq 點擊:
      Research proposal 作為留學生論文中的組成部分,對于一篇留學畢業論文來說是相當重要的,國外大學在針對畢業論文寫作時,都會要求學生先提供一篇Research proposal 來簡單講述自己畢業論文的研究問題,背景,目的和方法等。在經過導師的溝通和認可后再進行具體的畢業論文寫作。因此Research proposal 怎么寫,成了留學生面臨畢業的巨大絆腳石,下面提供一篇Research proposal 范文,主要內容是針對廣告中的性別倫理問題這一選題,提出研究建議。是一篇符合留學生論文Research proposal 格式要求的范文,供參考。
      Research proposal格式范文
      Research proposal格式范文
      Introduction/Context: 簡介/背景:
      這項令人擔憂的研究提案通過關注斧頭/猞猁香水,突出了新貿易環境下商業廣告中的性行為所引發的倫理問題。錯綜復雜的社會對商業廣告所引發的道德問題感到好奇,此時我們關注的是商業廣告中的性所引發的問題。             
      Axe或lynx是聯合利華(Unilever)旗下的一個男士美容產品品牌,聯合利華是一家英國/荷蘭公司,于1980年在法國推出。Axe的廣告代表了這些商品明顯有助于男性吸引女性的各種方式。             
      這項研究的主要目的是弄清商業性行為如何影響顧客及其對社會的影響。為了推銷他們的產品,在廣告上花了大量的錢。這家公司在廣告中用不同的主題來吸引顧客。這些公司還在廣告中使用性主題,這會引發許多道德問題。
      The apprehensive research proposal spotlights on the ethical issues raised by the sex in commercials in the new trade atmosphere by concentrating on Axe/Lynx perfumes. The intricate society are curious about the a mixture of ethical problems elevated by the commercials, at this point we are giving attention to the issues raised by the sex in commercials.
      Axe or lynx is a brand of men grooming products owned by Unilever which is a British/Dutch company launched in France in 1980. Axe advertisements represent various ways the merchandise evidently helped men attract women.
      The proposed research mainly aims in figuring out how sex in commercial influences the customers and its impact on the society. Huge amount of money are being spent on advertisements in order to promote their products. The company uses different themes in advertisements in attracting the customers. The companies also use sex themes in their commercials in advertising which arises many ethical issues.
      Aims and Objectives:目的和目標:
      這項研究的關鍵是審視性銷售的問題,但它應該嗎?性廣告引發的倫理問題及其對社會的影響。同時也要了解年輕人是如何對此做出反應的,并收集有關年輕男女是如何被廣告中的性吸引力所操縱的信息。這項研究還旨在指出男性和女性在商業廣告中對性的反應以及他們是如何定義的。
      Essential of this research is to scan the question sex sells but should it? The ethical issues raised by sex commercials and its impact on the society. Also find out how youth act in response to this and gather information on how young men and women are manipulated by sexual appeals in adverts. The research also aims at pointing out the reaction of men and women in context of sex in commercials and how do they define it.
      Literature review:文獻綜述:
      在倫理學中,我們可以指出在廣告中使用性是相當有限的。在這里,我們需要整理與廣告中的性訴求相關的理論,并探討廣告中的性認知。              Lambaise和Riechert指出廣告中存在五種不同類型的性信息;裸體;性行為,外表吸引力,性暗示和性嵌入。作者還透露,涉及性或活躍性思想的圖像和文字可以被視為廣告中性的例子。他們將廣告中的性指稱定義為信息元素,視覺或語言上的,用于產生或發展性思想的,性內容取自觀眾的思想,而不是在廣告中。Lambiase和Reichert聲稱,男性和女性對廣告吸引力的看法不同。當看到女性裸體的平面廣告時,女性的反應比男性更緊張。當男人們看到照片時,他們的反應是能量的激發而不是緊張的激發。             
      古爾德指出,性吸引力之間的一個重要區別是淫穢與猥褻。淫穢物品違法,涉及三個條件;它涉及淫穢的利益,它是明顯的冒犯,它缺乏救贖的價值。作者還聲稱,大多數與性吸引力相同的廣告都不是淫穢的,因為它們沒有通過這些評估,盡管有些廣告可能被貼上了不雅的標簽,這與淫穢不同,并不違法。            
      Boddewyn指出,與這一問題有關的主要常量和變量宗教和其他價值體系對于定義和認可廣告中的性和正派是至關重要的。那些不信任他人而不受社會控制和/或希望將社會問題轉化為法律的人提倡政府干預(博德溫。在自律不成熟或缺失的情況下,地方文化受到外來信息的危害,政府監管發揮著重要作用。             
      Smith等人指出,廣告中的性內容或裸體增加了對特定廣告的認知,但同時也減少了對品牌的記憶。作者還透露,先前的研究已經確定了支持裸體廣告何時有效和何時無效的重要變量。尤其是在有可能引起負面性喚起的情況下,如用于不合適的產品時,應該避免裸露。此外,作者還宣稱,裸體對酒精飲料和香水等產品的效果更好,性吸引力對某些產品的要求比其他產品更好
      Among the ethics we can point out quite limited on use of sex in advertisement. Here we need to arrange theories relating to the sex appeals in commercials and explore the perception of sex in advertisements.
      Lambaise and Riechert (2003) state that there five different types of sexual information in advertising; nudity; sexual behaviour, physical attractiveness, sexual referents and sexual embeds. The authors also disclose that images and words that refer to sex or active sexual thoughts can be considered as examples of sex in advertising. They defines sexual referents in advertising as message elements, visual or verbal that serve to bring forth or develop sexual thoughts, sexual content takes from viewer’s mind, not in the advertisement. Lambiase and Reichert (2003) claims that men and women perceive appeals in advertisement differently. Women reacted tenser than men did when being showed a print advertisement showing female nudity. When men viewed the print they reacted with energy arousal instead of tension arousal.
      Gould (1994) points out that an important distinction among sexual appeals is obscenity versus indecency. Obscene material is illegal and involves three conditions; it involves prurient interest, it is patently offensive, and it lacks redeeming value. The writer in addition claims that most advertisements in common with sexual appeals are not obscene because they fail these assessments, although some adverts may be under the tag of indecency, which dissimilar to obscenity is not illegal.
      Boddewyn (1991) states that the main constants and variables bearing on this issue religion and other value systems are crucial in defining and sanctioning sex and decency in advertising. Government intervention is advocated by those who mistrust others from social control and/or want to translate social issues in to laws. (Boddewyn. 1991).in case self regulation is immature or missing and the local culture suffers endangered by foreign messages the governmental regulation plays an important role.
      Smith et. Al, (1995) states that sexual content or nudity in advertising increases recognition of the specific advertisement, but at the same time it decreases the memory of the brand. The author also discloses that the previous research has identified important variables that supports when nudity will be effective and when it will be ineffective in advertising. In particular shows nudity should be avoided in situation where it is likely to elicit negative arousal, such as when it is used for an inappropriate product. More over the author declares that nudity works better for products like alcoholic beverages and fragrances, the sexual appeals demand certain products better than other products.
       
      Research proposal格式范文
      Research proposal格式范文
      Methodology:方法:
      Here we need to practice a systematic approach in direction to the mixture of advertising fields in discovering the issues arising on the use of sex in advertising. As there are only limited data published on ethical issues of sex commercials primary data collection is necessary to fulfil the purpose if our thesis. The purpose of the research is being stated which is the first step for the research and it continues with the presentation of the research approach and its strategy. The next step is to present the mode of data collection and sampling of the information. The final stage deals with the explanation of the investigative strategy and evaluating the quality standards.
      Data gathering:數據收集:
      The necessary data required for the research is being collected from the primary sources of data. For this purpose it is decided to follow the questionnaire method and interviewing. Secondary data is one of the most convenient methods of data gathering to be used in the beginning of the research. (Eriksson & Wiedersheim-Paul, 2001). The data collection methods that are to be mainly used for this research are interviews, questionnaires, documentation and observations. Documentation will act as the major part of secondary data and the interviews questionnaires and observations will act as the main role players in primary data. The major source of our primary data collection will be questionnaires and interviews and questionnaires. Interviews have got enough strength to focus directly on to the topic of the study (yin, 2003). The main drawback of the interview is that it can be easily biased with non proper preparation of the questionnaires.
      Focused interview is the type of interview used for this research because we can use an interview guide which enables discussion related to the conceptual frame work. It is being used to verify the theories of the study. It can be generally by telephone (Lundhal and Skarvad, 1992). It is less costly and less time consuming. It is helpful when the person to be interviewed is far away and personal interview can involve more complex questions. It also enables to have more feedback.
      Data analysis:數據分析:
      The collected data is the rough data it can be a mixture of biased and unbiased data. Therefore the collected data is to be sorted out and grouped to remove the biased data. It can be grouped according to the gender in order to get the exact figure about the present situation. Yin (2003) states that each case study should start with a general analytical strategy. A strategy will help to take care of the evidence, produce compelling analytic conclusions and also rule out possible alternative interpretations. According to Ramirez and Reichert (2000) there are five different characteristics that an advertisement may have to be defined as sexual. The common among these are physical attractiveness, flirting dancing moaning and groaning.
      Data presentation:數據顯示:
      The data presentation should provide a clear picture about the circumstances therefore it must be presented in a well defined format that the readers easily understand. The primary data thus collected need to be arranged in a well defined manner, it has to be sorted and grouped. Presentation can be also in tables/graphs to provide easy information evidently. The secondary data helps in gathering and understanding the impact of sex commercials in the society in the past and the current situation
      Discussion:討論:
      The primary objective of study is to discover the ethical issues related to the use of sex in commercial advertisements and to find out a solution for the issues. Many of the companies use sex in their advertisements to attract the public attention and grab more customers towards it. Not all the companies use sex in their advertisements although there are a few companies focusing on sex commercials to sell their products. The existence of sex appeals in advertising is prevailing in many parts of the world and it is often promoted in terms of erotic fantasies (Gould, 1994). Bareness or use of sex in advertisements can increase the attention; it may decrease the attention towards the brand name (Belch, Severn, 1990). Sex may attract initial attention for a longer period by quality of challenging models and their posing. They also evoke emotional responses.
      There are also cultural and religious aspects affecting the use sexy advertisements. In some countries it s restricted as it is considered to be indecent. The uses of sex in advertisements whether direct or indirect are considered to be indecent and are being banned. While some other countries with western culture promotes it.
      Taking in to consideration the global aspect nudity has got budding hurtful social cost. Advertisements are considered to be decent and acceptable by the society. Women are mainly concentrated for the nudity in advertisements. They are mainly targeted to attract consumers here women are being degraded as sexual objects and this arises many problems in most of the countries.
      Nudity is only for attracting the customers; it may increase the sale of the product but it may end in social problem such as degradation of women as sexual objects. It harms the viewers thoughts and beliefs therefore I can suggest for the minimization of nudity in advertisements
      Conclusion: 結論
      In this framework for the proposed research I have decided to do future researches which can make several impacts in the society. Nudity is used in major advertisements especially in perfumes and fragrances. The study would throw light on to the society in creating awareness about the nudity in commercials and the degradation of women in these advertisements. Advertisements are meant to promote sales and not to harm the beliefs and concepts in the society
      REFERENCES:參考文獻
      * Belch, G.E Severn, J. (1990). The effects of sexual and nonsexual advertising appeals and information level on coginitive processing and communication effectiveness. Journal of advertising, vol. 19 Issue 1. ISSN 0091-3367
      * Boddewyn,J.J (1991). Controlling sex and decency in advertising around the world. Journal of advertising, vol.20 issue 4. ISSN 0091-3367
      * Eriksson L.T. & Wiedersheim-Paul,.F. (2001).att utreda och rapporetta. Malmo : Liber. ISSN 91-40-30919-3
      * Gould, S.J (1994). Sexuality and ethics in advertising: a research agenda and policy guideline perspective. Journal of advertising, vol. 23 Issue 3. ISSN 0091- 3367
      * Lambiasse, J. & Reichert, T. (2003) sex in advertising. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-4117-2
      * Lundhal,U. Skarvad, P.H. (1992) Utredningsmetodik for samhallsvetare och ekonomer. 2nded.). lund : studentlitreatur. ISBN 0-8039-5540-5.
      * Ramirez, A. & Reichert,T. (2000). Defining sexually oriented appeals in advertising: A grounded theory investigation. Advances in consumer research, vol.27. ISSN 0098-9258.
      * Yin, R.K. (2003). Casestudy research: design and methods. (3rd ed.). Thousand oaks, California :Sage Publications Inc. ISBN 0-7619-2553-8.

      Research proposal格式一般都涵蓋了以上范文中的內容,包括簡介,背景,研究目的,文獻綜述等,如果涉及到數據分析,還需要再Research proposal 中說明關于數據方面的具體操作方法。最終要的還是要用總結部分,作者需要闡述做這些研究的意義是什么。本站除了提供留學生作業服務,還提供Research proposal等留學論文相關的寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。
       


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